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The study authors suggested that the greater satiety effect of oatmeal cereal compared to sugared corn flakes or water might be due to a slower gastric emptying (oatmeal took longer to leave the stomach).
Dietary proteins have been demonstrated to reduce appetite by increasing satiety and delaying the return of hunger, subsequently lowering energy intake in comparison to fat or carbohydrate.
This study assessed the impact of chewing and swallowing on satiety when compared to swallowing food that is mechanically masticated.
The second JAMA Paediatrics paper, in collaboration with King's College London, shed further light on the way that appetite, particularly low satiety responsiveness, acts as one of the mechanisms underlying genetic predisposition to obesity.
The satiety effect of Weigh tain has been shown in clinical studies, which validate feelings of fullness on the part of participants at 20 grams per eating occasion.
It can take longer for sense of satiety to come from a fatty meal compared to a meal high in protein for example, so allow time for the feeling of fullness from the fat to kick in.
Fructose also resulted in lower concentrations of plasma insulin and the satiety hormone glucagonlike polypeptide 1.
Fructose ingestion produces smaller increases in circulating satiety hormones compared with glucose ingestion, and central administration of fructose provokes feeding in rodents, whereas centrally administered glucose promotes satiety.
They also observed decreased activity in the lateral orbital frontal cortex, a region involved in satiety.
Appetite and satiety are complex processes, but we are gaining an increasing understanding of them, and this is leading to efforts to design foods that can modulate these processes, as an aid to controlling food intake.
Moreover, higher concentrations of the satiety hormones PYY and GLP-I were measured in the blood, whereas feelings of hunger and satiety remained the same.
The change increased satiety - or "feeling full" in the animals and led to a reduction in food intake.