scarify

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Mechanical scarification and water for 2 hours: this treatment consisted of the mechanical scarification followed by immersing the seed in water at ambient temperature for two hours.
Total removal of seedcoat: the treatment consisted of completely removing the seed coat, adopting a procedure similar to mechanical scarification.
Three treatments were used for seed dormancy breaking including scarification of seed endocarp with sandpaper, treatment with sulphuric acid (95%) for periods of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min and immersion in boiling water for 10 min.
In scarification of seed with sand paper, seeds were rubbed between two pieces of sandpaper until the seed endocarp becomes slim.
ABOVE: a traditionally scarred man from Cotonou, the largest city and economic capital of Benin: ABOVE, CENTRE: a man with tribal scarification on his face stands in front of a wall that also bears symbolic markings.
However, as younger people increasingly move from rural to urban areas in search of work, and start to wear clothes that cover their bodies, body scarification is becoming less popular because the markings can no longer be seen.
Therefore, in addition to scarification treatments, methods such as soaking in water or even using chemical growth regulators may be effective for overcoming this type of dormancy and increasing germination in many species, as reported by Nagao et al.
Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of different types of scarification methods and the use of gibberellic acid to overcome seed dormancy in the macaw palm.