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For the simple example of a single isotope, pure incoherent scatterer, 1/3 of the neutrons have their spins unchanged whilst 2/3 of the neutrons have their spins flipped by [pi].
In practice the phase of each point scatterer in an object will not be identical.
This difference seems plausible when we consider the SI to be a metric for how many scatterers are contributing to the sonar return within a beam footprint.
Numerical simulations were performed as a function of the filling fraction and the relative index of refraction, nY defined as the ratio between the index of refraction of the scatterers and the surrounding media noted n and n0.
SNR performance values of the circular and cylindrical scatterers Circular Scatterer Cylindrical Scatterer At 10GHz At 10GHz Maximum SNR = 80dB Maximum SNR = 81dB Circle Minimum SNR = -39dB Cylinder Minimum SNR = -27dB
Biological molecules such as viruses, on the other hand, are intrinsically weak light scatterers.
When fluid is compressed the scattering particles in it move more randomly than do the scatterers in solid tissue, producing artifacts on the elastogram that should make it easy to diagnose a debris-filled cyst.
Speckle noise is caused by signals from elementary scatterers.
Sampling cells that are likely to behave as Permanent Scatterers can be identified in advance by means of a pixel by pixel statistical analysis of the amplitudes of the N + 1 available SAR images.
Topics include the small perturbation surface backscattering model, the simplified integral equation surface backscattering model, the IEM-B surface backscattering model and its bistatic properties, backscatter from multiscale surfaces, the standard moment method, a model for scattering from a low-dielectric layer of Rayleigh scatterers with irregular layer boundaries, and emission models for rough surfaces and a Rayleigh layer with irregular layer boundaries.
Seeding particles, which are good light scatterers, are suspended in the flow of interest, a two-dimensional plane of the flow is illuminated by a strobo-scopic light source (using a pulsed laser), and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera placed perpendicular to the light sheet records scattered light from the seeding particles.