system of scutage
, where one would agree to serve in a lord's army
He assessed scutage or aids that were significantly greater than traditional payments to the king.
Chapters 12 and 14 forbade the assessment of "aid" or "scutage" without "general consent of the realm," foreshadowing the principle that taxes cannot be raised without the consent of Parliament, though Parliament did not exist at that time.
he that holdeth by castle-guard pays no scutage
And speaking of clarity Milite, Coke, Edwardus "that light which was Sigier" ...
nor aid shall be imposed on our kingdom, unless by common counsel of our kingdom, except for ransoming our person, for making our eldest son a knight, and for once marrying our eldest daughter; and for these there shall not be levied more than a reasonable aid.
By the end of the thirteenth century, a noble could satisfy his military obligations by paying scutage, or fees in lieu of knight's service.
This sum, because it is paid for each knight's shield, is called scutage.");C.
The king therefore was forced to agree, for instance, that no scutage
(a tax in lieu of military service) would be levied without consent.
Most significant of all, Magna Carta (clauses 12 and 14), recording John's promise not to levy the taxes of "scutage
" and "aid" without the "common counsel" of the kingdom, established the requirement, however rudimentary, of the need for consent to taxation.
Our conjecture is that John's insecurity of rule caused him to violate existing contractual agreements with the nobility, such as the amount and frequency of the scutage
, and the nobles demonstrated to him that they had the power to prevent such violations.
He argues that mercenaries, whether or not part of the familia, comprised the majority element in armies as opposed to strictly feudal troops and that scutage
- money paid in lieu of military service - was perhaps the feudal system's most significant contribution to Anglo-Norman forces in this period'.
Some have argued that the monarcy wa avaricious, and eagerly sought to raise its revenues through the imposition of scutages
(tases paid in lieu of services) and fines.