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Changes in phenotypic values of the traits are shown in Table 1, and the selection differentials in the observed scales were provided.
Twenty-one of the 35 selection criteria based on two blocks had a higher selection differential than their respective selection differential based on either individual block.
At the end of the simulation year, we computed a selection differential on each growth parameter as the percent difference between mean trait values ([L.
These opposing processes led to a negative selection differential, but a positive selection gradient.
The strength of the estimated selection differential at the inland site would be sufficient to cause up to a 12% shift in petal shape in the direction of the native morphology, and there was a significant divergence in petal shape between the [F.
Selection differentials (s) include indirect effects of selection, and were calculated as the covariance between relative fitness and each character (Robertson 1966).
The selection differential within families naturally tends to be higher than the differential among families, which can result in higher genetic gains.
For all marker indices, the selection differential was computed as the difference between NDF least squares means of the top five vs.
Three of the four ground-nesting species showed positive selection differentials and gradient coefficients (Table 3) for the vegetation type that typified its preferred vegetation type as illustrated in Fig.
1981; Cooke and Findlay 1982; Gustafsson 1986), a paradox was early established: why did consistent selection differentials not result in evolutionary responses in spite of high levels of additive genetic variance?
Therefore, this estimate of broad-sense heritability overestimates the percentage of the selection differential that would be retained in a cycle of selection.

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