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The decision balance theory is divided into four categories: 1) gains and losses for self in which the decision maker identifies and weighs the expected outcomes of his or her choice, 2) gains and losses for others wherein the decision maker considers the cost and benefits that pertain to those with which he or she is associated or affiliated, 3) self-approval or disapproval, 4) social approval or disapproval, a decision maker compares the ideas and beliefs of other groups and people with the potential decisions (Janis & Mann, 1977).
Somewhere in his incisive writings, Mark Twain identified "The Master Passion" as nothing less than "the hunger for self-approval.
the need to give body to vague hostility, to find excuses for what goes wrong, to fear aliens or neighbors and curse them, while enjoying self-approval from the shelter of one's own group" (p.
Those who were involved "wanted a reduction in their personal anxieties, a resolution of their practical problems, and a greater degree of self-approval," and Wesley offered them "a transformation of personal identity as an antidote to despair .
We weren't given the ad,'" Computer learning, we're told, lifts self-esteem, but what Oppenheimer beholds is a false sense of accomplishment, as with the student who built a Web project filled with thin platitudes about simulation games, while her website registered tidbits of self-approval such as "I think I demonstrate a lot of critical thinking.
To do so with self-assertion, with implicit self-approval, is considered an act of arrogance and hubris.
Pre-teen girls expressed concerns about body image and relationships, showing an alarming decline in self-approval.
The best thing a golfer can do, Wright said, is be his or her own best friend - cheering the good shots, disregarding the poor ones and rating self-approval over the perceived opinion of others:
even when Hal 'performs his role as prince consciously, he will be reinforced [a behaviourist term for habituation through imitation] by self-approval for seeing his conduct as real, not merely simulated' (p.
Table 1 Components of Self-Esteem as Measured by the MSEI and Characteristics of a High Scorer Component Characteristic Competence Feels effective and capable of mastering new tasks Personal Power Assertive, seeks positions of leadership Lovability Worthy of love, able to express love Likability Popular, gets along with others Self-control Self-disciplined, good at setting goals Global Self-Esteem Pleased with self, feels significant as a person Body Appearance Pleased with appearance, pays attention to appearance Moral Self-Approval Has clearly defined moral standards Body Functioning Agile, in good physical condition Identity Integration Clear sense of identity, inner sense of cohesion Defensive Self-Enhancement Overly inflated view of self-worth
She emerges with an exhilarating sense of freedom, looks at herself in the mirror, and declares with obvious self-approval, "I am Riemkje.
We may even punish ourselves by withholding our own self-approval or denying ourselves pleasures (lunches with friends, evenings out, vacations).