We do not believe that players deliberately turn in indifferent performances because they know they will be paid in any case; even if a player wished to reduce effort, shirking
within the game may be difficult.
The model assumes that there are only two effort levels: working and shirking
. As a result, one can inspect three value functions [V.su.N.sub.E], [V.sup.S.sub.E] and [V.sub.U] that stand for the present value of (a) being employed and working, (b) being employed and shirking
, and (c) being unemployed, respectively.
Krautmann and Donley found mixed results in their study of shirking
. When using traditional baseball measures--in this case, on-base plus slugging percentage (OPS)--they did not find significant evidence of shirking
A sole proprietorship with no agents will internalize all costs of shirking
, because the proprietor's optimal trade-off between labor and leisure is, by definition, the same as the firm's optimal trade-off.
Salary.com and AOL reported in early August--truly the dog days of summer--that the average American worker admits to 2.09 hours of wasting time at work, mostly surfing the Internet (47.7 percent of the shirking
), but also just socializing with other workers (23.4 percent).
As noted in the literature, even if a player wished to reduce effort, shirking
within the course of a game may be difficult.
The rich are shirking
their duty to serve their country and leaving the dirty work to the poor and the lower-middle class.
Congress, the only body the Constitution permits to declare war, is simultaneously shirking
its duty and weakening our economic system by funding this war with their cost.
While that scenario may sound like a shirking
of medical responsibility to "do no harm," a number of bills being floated in state legislatures across the country would make such a situation reality.
Many companies that aren't shirking
their pension obligations by filing for bankruptcy are switching their defined benefit pension plans--which promise a fixed monthly check--over to riskier defined contribution plans like 401(k)s, or to no plans at all.
The interaction between civilian principals and military agents is examined on the basis of the former's expectations about whether or not the military will follow their orders, and the latter's expectations about whether or not shirking
would be detected.
That needs partnership and compromise, not shirking
of responsibilities, or else the town will be left with a white elephant.