Because a LTC in Major League Baseball guarantees a player a specific salary regardless of his performance, one might expect the usual disincentive effect on effort that dominates the existing shirking
ensures that given the current unemployment rate and the parameters of the model, costs of shirking
outweigh its benefits.
As noted in the literature, even if a player wished to reduce effort, shirking
within the course of a game may be difficult.
Using his theoretical construct, Feaver's look at civil-military relations during the Cold War reveals, despite "quibbles over how to code and interpret complex concepts like shirking
or expectations of punishment," that the military worked (they expected the costs for shirking
to be high) under intrusive monitoring (costs to do so were low while unintrusive monitoring was not very reliable).
He concludes that systematic, league-wide shirking
does not occur: "It is the stochastic nature of productivity that is the source of this alleged disincentive problem," and that "what owners are interpreting as shirking
by players is more likely the expected outcome of a stochastic process.
Uslaner also argues for a more nuanced definition of the constituency in models of shirking
In particular, it is more difficult (costly) to detect shirking
in larger firms, ceteris paribus.
Fry's engaging, discursive book charts the first 20 years of his life, and, really, he was a hateful child--constantly disappointing his family, shirking
schoolwork, stealing money from his classmates, and lying about it all with an ease that astonished even him.
Here, in the case of perfect verifiability, the offer is accepted even when the production value is low because shirking
is detected with probability one and can be proven in court.
If Americans are shirking
their responsibilities toward jury service, they aren't doing it by not showing up.
With the global economy shirking
, the availability of numerous and unique investment pools have become easier to tap - if you know where to look, says Adams.
When we don't vote, we're not only shirking
our civic responsibility, we're also dooming our very democracy.