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Yet, in Shapiro's and Stiglitz's logic, when one offers to shirk at [w.
If firms know that with a certain wage and certain level of employment additional workers would shirk at work, and for this reason do not offer them work, then nothing of involuntary nature occurs.
And the Shirks take direct orders at home over the phone and through their Web site.
After living in the Bay Area, the Shirks moved to Ohio.
As long-term contracts became the norm, a growing proportion of baseball's talent pool had, at least during some years, an incentive to shirk.
The emergence of multiyear contracts, however, has made it relatively easier for players to shirk.
A worker who is at work and contemplating whether or not to shirk has already incurred transaction and/or psychological costs associated with work.
Thus, a potential loss is imposed on the firm when a supervisor shirks in the sense that this affects shirking and productivity at lower levels in the hierarchy.
At any given time, an urban worker will shirk unless the utility gained from shirking is less than the expected loss in utility due to the shirker's increased chances of getting fired.
i](j) denote the probability that a worker shirks in period i on a contract lasting at most j periods.
In this way, the worker is encouraged not to shirk and an efficiency-wage trade-off arises.
Moreover, if shirking and selection are both important, firms will pursue methods in addition to high wages to try to attract workers who are inherently more productive and inherently less likely to shirk or quit.