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47) The effects of this incorporation of resin to a calcium silicate cement have been explored in some in vitro studies; (48-50) however, no clinical studies have been reported to date.
A portion of calcium silicate cement (CSC; Irajazinho Votorantim, Cimento Rio Branco, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was mixed with 0%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 50% of bismuth oxide (BO; Merck, New Jersey, USA), proportioned in weight using an electronic analytic scale (Mettler Toledo PG5002-S, Sao Paulo, Brazil).
Wilson et al made extensive studies on the dental silicate cement and concluded that this cement could not be further improved.
So far, the most promising and most commonly used materials in endodontic treatment and retreatment were calcium silicate cements.
It is known that calcium silicate cements have the ability to release calcium and hydroxyl ions and to form hydroxyapitite crystals on the surface after contact with phosphate containing liquids like body fluids.