dna

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Related to single-stranded DNA: B DNA

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Detecting single-stranded DNA with a solid state nanopore.
Products: Thermo BioAnalysis introduced two new products: the KingFisher, an automated purification system for single-stranded DNA, which uses a magnetic particle-separation technique to purify about 300 DNA samples per day; and DASH, an automated screening system for the detection of defects in genes, which probes DNA for single base-pair sequence variations, called single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs.
A second piece of single-stranded DNA ("2") is designed to hybridize on one end to this barcode, with its other end hybridizing to the target analyte sequence.
The researchers incubate cells with tiny snippets of single-stranded DNA engineered to slip into the cells' outer membranes, covering each cell like the hairs on a tennis ball.
Replication Protein A (RPA), also known as Replication Factor A (RFA) in yeast, is a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that is required for DNA replication, repair, and recombination (1).
In 2003, a team of scientists from DuPont, MIT and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign developed a new method of separating metallic CNTs from semiconducting CNTs using single-stranded DNA and anion-exchange chromatography.
Some techniques have been developed to produce single-stranded DNA targets for sequencing and hybridization, but these methods may necessitate additional steps or modification of the target strand or have poor sensitivities (5-8).
Turberfield, designed a set of four single-stranded DNA molecules, each one with components in an order that would result in certain DNA-DNA bonds.
Different studies suggest that transcription-associated recombination (TAR) is in large part due to collisions between transcription and replication, but increasing evidence indicate that R-loops, formed by a DNA-RNA hybrid and a displaced single-stranded DNA, may be a major determinant of genome instability.
We found that the single-stranded DNA regions that accumulate during BIR are susceptible to damage that leads to the formation of mutation clusters," explains Cynthia Sakofsky, postdoctoral fellow at the UI and one of two co-first authors on the paper.
They are assisted in doing so by a handful of other proteins, including single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs) which coat ss-DNA regions to help keep them from immediately re-annealing.
Replication Protein A (RPA), a highly conserv ed hetero-trimeric complex, is a single-stranded DNA bmding protein with roles in DNA replication, repair, recombination and cell cycle checkpoint function.

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