slander


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Related to slander: Defamation of character

slander

n. oral defamation, in which someone tells one or more persons an untruth about another which untruth will harm the reputation of the person defamed. Slander is a civil wrong (tort) and can be the basis for a lawsuit. Damages (payoff for worth) for slander may be limited to actual (special) damages unless there is malicious intent, since such damages are usually difficult to specify and harder to prove. Some statements such as an untrue accusation of having committed a crime, having a loathsome disease, or being unable to perform one's occupation are treated as slander per se since the harm and malice are obvious, and therefore usually result in general and even punitive damage recovery by the person harmed. Words spoken over the air on television or radio are treated as libel (written defamation) and not slander on the theory that broadcasting reaches a large audience as much if not more than printed publications. (See: defamation, fair comment)

slander

noun abusive language, accusation, calumniation, calumny, censure, character assassination, damaging report, defamation, defamatory words, denigration, denunciation, execration, false report, imprecation, insinuation, libel, malicious report, obloquy, reproach, revilement, scandal, scurrility, slur, smear, stricture, traducement, vilification
Associated concepts: malice, publication, slander of title, slander per quod, slander per se
See also: aspersion, defamation, defame, denigrate, disparage, libel, malign, smear, tarnish, vilification

slander

see DEFAMATION, MALICIOUS FALSEHOOD.

SLANDER, torts. The defaming a man in his reputation by speaking or writing words which affect his life, office, or trade, or which tend to his loss of preferment in marriage or service, or in his inheritance, or which occasion any other particular damage. Law of Nisi Prius, 3. In England, if slander be spoken of a peer, or other great man, it is called Scandalum Magnatum. Falsity and malice are ingredients of slander. Bac. Abr. Slander. Written or printed slanders are libels; see that word.
     2. Here it is proposed to treat of verbal slander only, which may be considered with reference to, 1st. The nature of the accusation. 2d. The falsity of the charge. 3d. The mode of publication. 4th. The occasion; and 5th. The malice or motive of the slander.
     3.-Sec. 1. Actionable words are of two descriptions; first, those actionable in themselves, without proof of special damages and, secondly, those actionable only in respect of some actual consequential damages.
     4.-1. Words of the first description must impute: 1st. The guilt of some offence for which the party, if guilty, might be indicted and punished by the criminal courts; as to call a person a "traitor," "thief," "highwayman;" or to say that he is guilty of "perjury," "forgery," "murder," and the like. And although the imputation of guilt be general, without stating the particulars of the pretended crime, it is actionable. Cro. Jac. 114, 142; 6 T. R. 674; 3 Wils. 186; 2 Vent. 266; 2 New Rep. 335. See 3 Serg. & Rawle, 255 7 Serg. & Rawle, 451; 1 Binn. 452; 5 Binn. 218; 3 Serg. & Rawle, 261; 2 Binn. 34; 4 Yeates, 423; 10 Serg. & Rawle, 44; Stark. on Slander, 13 to 42; 8 Mass. 248; 13 Johns. 124; Id. 275.
     5.-2d. That the party has a disease or distemper which renders him unfit for society. Bac. Abr. Slander, B 2. An action can therefore be sustained for calling a man a leper. Cro. Jac. 144 Stark. on Slander, 97. But charging another with having had a contagious disease is not actionable, as he will not, on that account, be excluded from society. 2 T. R. 473, 4; 2 Str. 1189; Bac. Abr. tit. Slander, B 2. A charge which renders a man ridiculous, and impairs the enjoyment of general society, and injures those imperfect rights of friendly intercourse and mutual benevolence which man has with respect to man, is also actionable. Holt on Libels, 221.
     6.-3d. Unfitness in an officer, who holds an office to which profit or emolument is attached, either in respect of morals or inability to discharge the duties of the office in such a case an action lies. 1 Salk. 695, 698; Rolle, Ab. 65; 2 Esp. R. 500; 5 Co. 125; 4 Co. 16 a; 1 Str. 617; 2 Ld. Raym. 1369; Bull. N. P. 4; Holt on Libels, 207; Stark. on Slander, 100.
     7.-4th. The want of integrity or capacity, whether mental or pecuniary, in the conduct of a profession, trade or business, in which the party is engaged, is actionable, 1 Mal. Entr. 244 as to accuse an attorney or artist of inability, inattention, or want of integrity; 3 Wils. 187; 2 Bl. Rep. 750; or a clergyman of being a drunkard; 1 Binn. 178; is actionable. See Holt on Libels, 210; Id. 217.
     8.-2. Of the second class are words which are actionable only in respect of special damages sustained by the party slandered. Though the law will not permit in these cases the inference of damage, yet when the damage has actually been sustained, the party aggrieved may support an action for the publication of an untruth; 1 Lev. 53; 1 Sid. 79, 80; 3 Wood. 210; 2 Leon. 111; unless the assertion be made for the assertion of a supposed claim; Com. Dig. tit. Action upon the case for Defamation, D 30; Bac. Ab. Slander, B; but it lies if maliciously spoken. See 1 Rolle, Ab. 36 1 Saund. 243 Bac. Abr. Slander, C; 8 T. R. 130 8 East, R. 1; Stark. on Slander, 157.
     9.-Sec. 2. The charge must be false; 5 Co. 125, 6; Hob. 253; the falsity of the accusation is to be implied till the contrary is shown. 2 East, R. 436; 1 Saund. 242. The instance of a master making an unfavorable representation of his servant, upon an application for his character, seems to be an exception, in that case there being a presumption from the occasion of the speaking, that the words were true. 1 T. R. 111; 3 B. & P. 587; Stark. on Slander, 44, 175, 223.
     10.-Sec. 3. The slander must, of course, be published, that is, communicated to a third person; and if verbal, then in a language which he understands, otherwise the plaintiff's reputation is not impaired. 1 Rolle, Ab. 74; Cro. Eliz. 857; 1 Saund. 2425 n. 3; Bac. Abr. Slander, D 3. A letter addressed to the party, containing libelous matter, is not sufficient to maintain a civil action, though it may subject the libeler to an indictment, as tending to a breach of the peace; 2 Bl. R. 1038; 1 T. R. 110; 1 Saund. l32, n. 2; 4 Esp. N. P. R. 117; 2 Esp. N. P. R. 623; 2 East, R. 361; the slander must be published respecting the plaintiff; a mother cannot maintain an action for calling her daughter a bastard. 11 Serg. & Rawle, 343. As to the case of a man who repeats the slander invented by another, see Stark. on Slander, 213; 2 P. A. Bro. R. 89; 3 Yeates, 508; 3 Binn. 546.
     11.-Sec. 4. To render words actionable, they must be uttered without legal occasion. On some occasions it is justifiable to utter slander of another, in others it is excusable, provided it be uttered without express malice. Bac. Ab. Slander, D 4; Rolle, Ab. 87; 1 Vin. Ab. 540. It is justifiable for au attorney to use scandalizing expressions in support of his client's cause and pertinent thereto. 1 M. & S. 280; 1 Holt's R. 531; 1 B. & A. 232; see 2 Serg. & Rawle, 469; 1 Binn. 178; 4 Yeates, 322; 1 P. A. Browne's R. 40; 11 Verm. R. 536; Stark. on Slander, 182. Members of congress and other legislative assemblies cannot be called to account for anything said in debate.
     12.-Sec. 5. Malice is essential to the support of an action for slanderous words. But malice is in general to be presumed until the contrary be proved; 4 B. & C. 247; 1 Saund. 242, n. 2; 1 T. R. 1 11, 544; 1 East, R. 563; 2 East, R. 436; 2 New Rep. 335; Bull. N. P. 8; except in those cases where the occasion prima facie excuses the publication. 4 B. & C. 247. See 14 Serg. & Rawle, 359; Stark. on Slander, 201. See, generally, Com. Dig. tit. Action upon the case for Defamation; Bac. Abr. Slander; 1 Vin. Abr. 187; 1 Phillim. Ev. ch. 8; Yelv. 28, n.; Doctr. Plac. 53 Holt's Law of Libels; Starkie on Slander, Ham. N. P. ch. 2, s. 3.

References in periodicals archive ?
The term oral defamation or slander as now understood, has been defined as the speaking of base and defamatory words which tend to prejudice another in this reputation, office, trade, business or means of livelihood," it added.
Andrew North West constituency in the general election scheduled for next year, told a public meeting that her opponent and NDC candidate, Phillip Alexander, had slandered here during a party meeting that was also carried live on Facebook.
BEIRUT: Local daily Al-Akhbar was ordered Tuesday to pay a symbolic LL1,000 in damages to both the American University of Beirut and the Lebanese Forces, after the newspaper was found to have slandered these parties in two separate cases.
After all, you have slander, you have libel - a civil case.
Craun has shown, these texts spread after the Fourth Lateran Council (1215): they were "constructed from the thirteenth century on by the new, university-educated higher clergy, for priests, especially parish priests, to apply in preaching, in directing confessions, etc." (Lies, Slander, and Obscenity 3).
The prosecution on Monday listened to a statement from the complainant who belongs to the slandered sect.
Escudero, HB 6148 proposes to amend Article 359 of the Revised Penal Code which provides imprisonment and a fine of not over P1,000 for slander by deed or acts that cast dishonor, discredit, or contempt upon another person.
He sued her for slander and libel, but the High Court ruled Ward's claims about Starr to be true, and ordered him to pay her legal bill.
The report provides further examples of the intolerance Erdoy-an has shown to journalists even after the election, mentioning the sentencing of actor BaryE- Atay for "slander in the press," the psychiatrist Dr.
What is the difference between libel and slander? 5.
Although Zaev's slander against me concerns a non-existent act of more than ten years ago, I decided to press charges for slander just in case, so this manipulation could be sorted out, Gruevski says.
Prime Minister Nikola Gruevski confirmed Friday he would press charges against SDSM leader Zoran Zaev for slander. He claims half a million euros in damages from Zaev for the allegations he voiced regarding the sale of Makedonska banka.