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Related to sleep fragmentation: polysomnography, polysomnogram
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Even though a sufficiently long period of sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction, or sleep fragmentation undoubtedly has negative impacts on neural functioning in individuals, it is important to stress that there are also studies which did not show a clear negative impact of different kinds of sleep deprivation at the behavioral level (measured by solving various cognitive tasks) (5,6).
Another Hypothesis to explain sleep fragmentation is the Hypercapnia, demonstrated in some studies.
For instance, sleep fragmentation in mice (20 weeks) induces vascular endothelial dysfunction and mild blood pressure increases.
Indeed, sleep fragmentation and increased latency are also often reported after foot shock stress (37).
However, results of numerous studies aimed at determining the basis of sleep continuity led to the same conclusion: there is no evidence that sleep continuity or sleep fragmentation are measurable factors contributing independently to recuperation during sleep.
The pathophysiologic mechanisms relating OSA and its protean consequences are incompletely defined but are believed to involve intermittent hypoxemia and hypercarbia, sleep fragmentation, and intrathoracic pressure changes that may lead to ischemia-reperfusion causing oxidative stress and generating reactive oxygen species that cause NO-mediated endothelial dysregulation and the activation and promulgation of inflammatory pathways (4).
In most cases, sleep disorders with frequent sleep fragmentation and characteristic periodic limb movements during sleep can be identified during a polysomnographic recording.
In summary, HPA axis hyperactivity can have a negative impact on sleep, leading to sleep fragmentation, decreased deep slow-wave sleep, and shortened sleeping time.
In intensive care units (ICU) mechanically ventilated patients often exhibit sleep fragmentation and a suppression of REM sleep and SWS (1-7).
In other words, feeding method made no difference in terms of objectively measured total sleep time, sleep efficiency (the ratio of sleep to wake during the night), or sleep fragmentation (the amount of sleep interruption during the night) as recorded by the wrist monitor.
The scores in Wisconsin test correlated significantly with night-time hypoxia and not with AHI which is a marker of sleep fragmentation.
UARS is defined by sleep fragmentation without episodes of apnea either with or without mild gas exchange abnormalities.