In intimal hyperplasia, a portion of the arterial wall thickens due to proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells
, causing a narrowing of the blood vessel.
Lim et al., "Vitamin D inhibits growth of human airway smooth muscle cells
through growth factor-induced phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein and checkpoint kinase 1," British Journal of Pharmacology, vol.
However, an increase in the amount of smooth muscle cells
Physiological roles of [K.sup.+] channels in vascular smooth muscle cells
. J Smooth Muscle Res 2008; 44: 65-81, doi: 10.1540/jsmr.44.65.
Human aortic smooth muscle cells
(HASMCs) (Cell Applications, USA) were cultured in DMEM/F12 (50:50) and supplemented with L-glutamine, antibiotic/antimycotic cocktail, and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS).
Liu et al., "Blockade of the rasextracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway is involved in smooth muscle 22a-mediated suppression of vascular smooth muscle cell
proliferation and neointima hyperplasia," Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol.
After 24 h of organ culture, there was a significant rightward shift in U46619 contractile response curves ([pEC.sub.50]: 6.89[+ or -]0.06 versus 6.48 [+ or -] 0.04, P < 0.001, Figure 1(a)), demonstrating downregulation of TP receptors in the renal artery smooth muscle cells
Resveratrol inhibits rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell
proliferation via estrogen receptor dependent nitric oxide production.
[sup], Recently, both in rat and mouse smooth muscle cells
, the Aalkjaer group demonstrated that the NBC is NBCn1, that is, it is electroneutral.
Cao's team couldn't obtain human smooth muscle cells
from progeria patients for their study because the process would be too invasive, so they used induced pluripotcnt stem cells--adult cells reprogrammed to behave like embryonic stem cells and develop into a variety of cell types.
Fujita, "Characterization of epidermal growth factor receptors in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells
of rat aorta," Endocrinologia Japonica, vol.
Once differentiation is confirmed, LILI and growth factors, such as RA and TGF-[beta]1, would play major roles in the established direct coculturing method for the differentiation of stem cells into SMCs and this would be very beneficial in the stem cell therapy for many degenerative diseases which involves smooth muscle cells
. However, significant further research and investigation are required to realise the clinical potential for cell therapy of ADSC differentiation into SMCs and the contributory role that LILI may have in this process.