Developing spermatogonia and oogonia have two functional centrioles (diplosomes) in their centrosomes, showing the typical "9+0" organization of microtubule triplets --common to all somatic cells
. During spermiogenesis, the distal centriole forms the axoneme of the sperm tail and becomes a vestige, whilst the proximal remains close to its nucleus and is inherited by the embryo (8,9).
Generation of bovine transgenics using somatic cell
According to ISSCR guidelines, tissue samples may be used for research without contemporaneous informed consent only if researchers procure somatic cells
from a tissue bank whose consent documents specifically designate nuclear reprogramming methods for stem cell research as one of the possible uses of the donor's tissues, and if donors have specifically agreed to this possible use.
In the experiment, a group of 44 cows receiving Sel-Plex organic selenium as part of its mineral ration recorded a 30% reduction in somatic cell
count from calving to week eight of lactation - from 249,000 cells/ml down to 174,500 cells/ml.
Since they contain the donor's own DNA, stem cells generated in somatic cell
nuclear transfer theoretically can be used to repair damaged or defective organ tissue in the donor's body without rejection or immune reactions related to organ transplant or injection from existing stem cell lines.
The group used mouse-human somatic cell
hybrids to screen a panel of mouse cell lines each containing a single human chromosome.
The practical effect of somatic cell
nuclear transfer is the embryonic development of a second organism containing the genetic code of the first organism.
The bill states that "the policy of the state shall be that research involving the derivation and use of human embryonic stem cells, human embryonic germ cells, and human adult stem cells from any source, including somatic cell
nuclear transplantation, shall be permitted, as specified." At the same time it would prohibit a person from "cloning a human being, and from purchasing or selling an ovum, zygote, embryo, or fetus for the purpose of cloning a human being."
In February 1997, the state-run Roslin Institute, based in Edinburgh, Scotland, announced the successful cloning of a healthy lamb, named Dolly, using genetic material from somatic cells
in the udder of a 6-year-old ewe.
Silver: Somatic cell
gene therapy is very difficult to do.
For example, in the movie Jurassic Park, scientists used somatic cells
that had been trapped in amber to create replicas of long-extinct dinosaurs.
Gene Therapy - Gene therapy that alters a specific trait or function by the introduction of an effective new gene into a specific class of somatic cells