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But we must also remember that these spawning pathways conveyed fitness to Great Lakes walleye populations thousands of years before alewives came and went.
In the River Panjkora, fishes were found to migrate slightly upper parts of the River during their spawning period.
Interruptions in growth patterns can appear due to environmental changes including thermal shock, excessively hot or cold seasons, neap and spring tides, shell margin abrasions, and spawning period (Gibson et al.
Different hypotheses explain the origin of skipped spawning, but most of them are associated with food deficiencies that affect energy storage before spawning activity or with unfavorable physical conditions that prevent or delay ovaries from ripening (Holmgren, 2003; Jprgensen et al.
bovinus, we recorded 1) spawning acts, 2) foraging behavior, 3) male or female conspecific chases, and 4) Gambusia chases.
The site of the observed spawning is an approximately parallel-sided cavity 20 cm wide between a flat-sided boulder and a vertical reef surface.
The aim of this paper was to describe the oocyte development and fecundity type of the Brazilian snapper to help understanding the life cycle and spawning patterns of the species, by means of histological analysis of female gonads, based on oocyte growth and recruitment style criteria to test indeterminate fecundity hypothesis as previous mentioned.
Other variables, such as the lipid and protein content of eggs, increase as a consequence of multiple spawning in the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 (Arcos et al.
Despite the high costs in acquiring hapas due to problems with regard to clogging and low oxygen levels, the hapas system is by far the commonest because diseased animals and improvement on spawning synchrony may be easily identified (Adel, 2012).
1997; Reid, 2006) and temperature X discharge interactions (Barton, 1980) with the upstream spring migrations and spawning of catostomids.
According to the Environment Agency there are 20 spawning areas in Cong Burn, a tributary of the River Wear, near Chester-le-Street, compared to a handful just a few years ago.
Spawning bass subsist largely on fat reserves built up over the fall and winter.