Special(redirected from special incidence ratios)
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adj. referring to a particular purpose, person or happening. In law these include hearings, proceedings, administrator, master, orders and so forth.
DAMAGES, SPECIAL, torts. Special damages are such as are in fact sustained, and are not implied by law; these are either superadded to general damages, arising from an act injurious in itself, as when some particular loss arises. from the uttering of slanderous words, actionable in themselves, or are such as arise from an act indifferent and not actionable in itself, but injurious only in its consequences, as when the words become actionable only by reason of special damage ensuing. To constitute special damage the legal and natural consequence must arise from the tort, and not be a mere wrongful act of a third person, or a remote consequence. 1 Camp. 58; Ham. N. P. 40; 1 Chit. Pl. 385, 6.
DAMAGES, SPECIAL, pleading. As distinguished from the gist of the action,
signify that special damage which is stated to result from the gist; as, if
a plaintiff in an action of trespass for breaking his close, entering his
house, and tossing his goods about, were to state that by means of the
damage done to his house, he was obliged to seek lodging elsewhere.
2. Sometimes the special damage is said to constitute the gist of the action itself; for example, in an action wherein the plaintiff declares for slanderous words, which of themselves are not a sufficient ground or foundation for the suit, if any particular damage result to the plaintiff from the speaking of them, that damage is properly said to be the gist of the action.
3. But whether special damage be the gist of the action, or only collateral to it, it must be particularly stated in the declaration, as the plaintiff will not otherwise be permitted to go into evidence of it at the trial, because the defendant cannot also be prepared to answer it. Willes, 23. See Gist.
PLEADING, SPECIAL. By special pleading is meant the allegation of special or new matter, as distinguished from a direct denial of matter previously alleged on the opposite side. Gould on Pl. c. 1, s. 18.
SPECIAL. That which relates to a particular species or kind, opposed to general; as special verdict and general verdict; special imparlance and general imparlance; special jury, or one selected for a particular case, and general jury; special issue and general issue, &c.