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Assessment of grain quality: The quality traits of spelt grain were determined based on collective samples from each plot.
The average grain yields of the spring breeding lines of spelt wheat (Table 1) were much lower than those for the winter cultivars investigated by Andruszczak et al.
At the same time, ears of the spelt line A12 were longer than those of the line A10 and were characterized by a higher number and weight of grains.
On the other hand, the value of TGW for the winter forms of spelt wheat grown in Poland ranges 38.0-52.2g (Andruszczak et al., 2011; Swieca et al., 2014; Podolska et al., 2015).
(2008a), spelt wheat is a cereal that has the characteristics of primitive species with strong crop self-regulation and that is why large changes in ear density are not always observed at different sowing rates.
In evaluating spelt grain yield, it was found that the application of 50 kg N ha-1 was much more beneficial compared to the rate of 80 kg N ha-1.
Nevertheless, it revealed a slightly different response of the evaluated spelt breeding lines to the cultivation treatments used (Figure 3).
Spelt wheat is considered to be a cereal with a high content of gluten-rich protein and this property has already been well documented (Escarnot et al., 2012).
(2012) found high variation in the protein content of spelt grain, ranging from 9.8% to 25.5%.
Sowing rate resulted in significant differences in starch and fat content in spelt grain, but did not affect the other grain quality parameters.
(2015) showed an increase in the protein content of spelt grain from 11.5% to 13.9% as affected by increased nitrogen rate up to 120 kg ha-1, compared to the treatment without nitrogen fertilization, while Biel et al.
In the second year of the study, spring spelt grain was characterized by the highest starch content, whereas the largest amount of protein and fat was found in the year 2014 which was characterized by higher air temperature and rainfall compared to the long-term means.