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Recently, toluidine blue, a nuclear stain used to evaluate chromatin integrity [4, 26, 31] has been used successfully to morphometric analysis by CASMA [4, 34, 38], and this combination has opened the possibility to evaluate simultaneously the sperm head morphometry and chromatin integrity as well as their relationship and could be a powerful tool to improve the results of spermiogram [33].
However, there is no study about the effect of this technique on sperm head vacuoles assessed by MSOME technology.
Non-significant correlations of CD presentations with ACRI, and TCD and PCD with MSI, could be attributed to the regional independence of the plasmatic membrane and the sperm head (JOHNSON et al.
The only advantage of CASA is that this system, through serial digital images, plots the movements of the sperm head, showing motion kinetics of the sperm that are not possibly assessed through routine microscopy (Kay and Robertson, 1998).
Specifically, a 1-unit increase in ln-transformed PFOSA was associated with smaller sperm head area ([beta] = -2.
The proportion of oocytes with 2 pronuclei and without sperm head, activated oocytes with female and male pronuclei, were higher in activated oocytes (Figure 2E; Table 1).
According to the data presented in Table 2, it was found that at the age of 180 and 360 days the width of sperm heads of boars of the second group was smaller compared with that of the control boars (the difference was up to 10.
Longitudinal section of a sperm head showing the perforatorium (p), acrosomal vesicle (a), and extra-acrosomal tissue (e).
According to Kruger's criteria, sperm with normal morphology were significantly higher in the control group, whereas sperm head anomalies were significantly higher in the varicocele group (Table 1).
Mutagenicity determination: Mutagenicity was determined by examination of the sperm head abnormalities after testicles dissections that followed the methods of Wyrobek & Bruce (1975).
The authors reported signatures of directional selection on sperm head length that were consistent with the idea that divergence in sperm morphology across populations can be mediated by sexual selection.
The tail beat frequency was measured by monitoring changes in the electrical pulse that correspond to sperm head movement as the sperm traverses the channel.