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Related to spontaneous abortion: induced abortion, missed abortion

MISCARRIAGE, med. jurisp. By this word is technically understood the expulsion of the ovum or embryo from the uterus within the first six weeks after conception; between that time and before the expiration of the sixth month, when the child may possibly live, it is termed abortion. When the delivery takes place soon after the sixth month, it is denominated premature labor. But the criminal act of destroying the foetus at any time before birth, is termed in law, procuring miscarriage. Chit. Med. Jur. 410; 2 Dunglison's Human Physiology, 364. Vide Abortion; Foetus.

MISCARRIAGE, contracts, torts. By the English statute of frauds, 29, C. II., c. 3, s. 4, it is enacted that "no action shall be brought to charge the defendant upon any special promise to answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage of another person, unless the agreement," &c. "shall be in writing," &c. The word miscarriage, in this statute comprehends that species of wrongful act, for the consequences of which the law would make the party civilly responsible. The wrongful riding the horse of another, without his leave or license, and thereby causing his death, is clearly an act for which the party is responsible in damages, and therefore, falls within the meaning of the word miscarriage. 2 Barn. & Ald. 516; Burge on Sur. 21.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
There are many risk factors related with spontaneous abortion especially fetal malformations and chromosomal abnormalities, chronic diseases of mothers, uterine disorders, immunological factors and infections.3 On the other hand several modifiable risk factors for spontaneous abortion was also identified: Older maternal and paternal age, obesity, smoking, alcohol and caffeine consumption.4 It has been shown in some studies that sociocultural factors like educational status, employment, place of residence and social classes play role in spontaneous abortion.
[sup][7],[8] Some researchers have reported that the rate of abnormality involving in chromosone nunber in spontaneous abortion was 23-61%.
NLR, as an indicator of systemic inflammation in some diseases (preeclampsia, coronary artery disease, ulcerative colitis etc.)8-10 PLR could serve as a biological marker of both thrombosis and inflammation.11 The role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of spontaneous abortion, the easy determination of these processes by CBC, and the scarcity of studies in these fields motivated us to investigate the relationship between CBC inflammation markers and spontaneous abortion.
This explains detachment of placenta and spontaneous abortions. Reduced expression of VEGF has been linked with spontaneous miscarriages likely due to defective factor and placental angiogenesis.
Finally, patients who reported having induced the abortion were more likely than those who reported having had a spontaneous abortion to have experienced severe or moderate complications rather than mild or no complications (1.7).
For example, there could be differential vaccine uptake in women with comorbidities that are also associated with spontaneous abortion, such as subfertility and psychiatric disorders.
Early spontaneous abortions (i.e., spontaneous abortions occurring in the first 12 weeks of gestation) occur in 20% of all pregnancies [8].
Excessive inflammation, in turn, may cause spontaneous abortion.
Many previous studies have identified normal pregnancy laboratory reference values, determined pregnancy-related changes in organ function, and studied special biomarkers, but no studies have heretofore compared laboratory values in women with spontaneous abortion to values in healthy pregnant women (2, 6).
Writing in the journal, the team concluded: "Use of macrolides (excluding erythromycin), quinolones, tetracyclines, sulphonamides and metronidazole during early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion.
Detailed interviewer-administered comprehensive health and lifestyle questionnaires, including questions on behavior related to abortion, such as history of spontaneous abortion and induced abortion and the number of each type of abortion, were completed at enrolment in the outpatient Department of Gynecology and Oncology clinic.
Early embryonic developmental arrest is a state of embryonic growth arrest in early pregnancy in which either no developed embryonic bud can be detected through B-scan or no embryonic heartbeat is detected despite the presence of embryonic bud.[sup][1] This condition is a complication commonly observed in early pregnancy and accounts for a significant proportion of all cases of spontaneous abortion. Its occurrence has gradually increased in recent years, and it has become a subject of interest among clinicians and researchers.