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MUTATION, French law. This term is synonymous with change, and is particularly applied to designate the change which takes place in the property of a thing in its transmission from one person to another; permutation therefore happens when, the owner of the thing sells, exchanges or gives it. It is nearly synonymous with transfer. (q.v.) Merl. Repert. h.t.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
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RISK STRATIFICATION OF GENETIC PREDISPOSITION TO CHRONIC ADENOIDITIS IN SIBLINGS IN THE FAMILIES WITH BURDENED HISTORY Risk group Risk Characteristics level 1 group low risk Siblings whose brothers and sisters are sick with CA and they are homozygous (T/T) carriers of the wild-type polymorphic allele variant 3954 * T of gene IL-1[beta], provided that homozygous carriage of the wild-type polymorphic allele variant (C/T) in the parents (in this case the risk is caused exclusively by spontaneous mutations).
Topics include molecular systematics and speciation, ecological diversity and biogeography, evolution of fungal self and non-self recognitions systems, fundamentals of fungal molecular population genetics, molecular population genetics of various groups of fungi, the inheritance and evolution of fungal mitochondrial genes and genomes, the evolution and molecular mechanisms of resistance to antifungal drugs, the rates and effects of spontaneous mutation affecting genotypic and phenotypic traits, and the evolution of a fungal laboratory model system.
"The polydactyly trait probably arose as a spontaneous mutation, and a polydactyl kitten from two normal-toed parents may represent a new mutation event, " explains Dr.
Strain Spontaneous Mutation Frequency (S) TA7001 0.9 ([+ or -] 0.1) X 1[0.sup.-8] TA7004 0.8 ([+ or -] 0.1) X 1[0.sup.-7] TA98 1.1 ([+ or -] 0.3) X 1[0.sup.-7] Strain Induced Mutation Induced Fold Frequency (I) (daunomycin) (120 [micro]g/ml daunomycin) (I/S) TA7001 6.6 ([+ or -] 0.1) X 1[0.sup.-8] 7.3 TA7004 6.1 ([+ or -] 0.6) X 1[0.sup.-7] 7.6 TA98 4.9 ([+ or -] 0.5) X 1[0.sup.-6] 44.6 Strain Induced Mutation Induced Fold Frequency (I) (idarubicin) (120 [micro]g/ml idarubicin) (I/S) TA7001 2.6 ([+ or -] 0.1) X 1[0.sup.-8] 2.8 TA7004 7.0 ([+ or -] 0.1) X 1[0.sup.-7] 8.7 TA98 1.8 ([+ or -] 0.3) X 1[0.sup.-6] 16.1 Table 3.
Alterations in antibiotic target sites can occur through spontaneous mutation of a bacterium's own genetic material, acquisition of DNA from another bacterium, and acquisition of DNA fragments, known as plasmids, which can travel from one type of bacterium to another.
Among the topics discussed by this volume's 33 papers are the importance of ecological and phylogenetic conditions for the occurrence and frequency of sexual cannibalism, responses of humid tropical trees to rising carbon dioxide, the role of propagule pressure in biological invasions, nongenetic inheritance and its evolutionary implications, spontaneous mutation accumulation studies in evolutionary genetics, geologic and biologic controls on the evolution of reefs, molecular estimation of dispersal for ecology and population genetics, the origin and subsequent diversification of the angiosperm flower, the evolutionary genetics of emerging viruses, belowground herbivory and plant defenses, genetic consequences of range expansions, and the role of animal pollination in plant speciation.
(2) It is associated with a spontaneous mutation in the gene coding for osteoblast transcription factor for RUNX2, which is essential for osteoblast and dental cell differentiation as well as for bone and tooth formation.
Evolution based on spontaneous mutation, and natural selection of the fittest variants, is an incredibly simple process.
And an animated illustration of the inner workings of a cell offers a striking visual argument in favor of "irreducible complexity," raising the question of how such harmony of form and function could have developed through spontaneous mutation.
Several studies in which mutation frequencies in the lacI transgenic system were compared with that in endogenous genes have shown that spontaneous mutation frequencies at reporter genes were dramatically higher than those found at the endogenous hprt gene (Skopek et al.

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