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The effect of prior level of political knowledge is somewhat reduced in the final step, but this must be interpreted as the result of indirect effects mainly via political interest rather than a sign of spuriousness. Neither age nor gender contribute to the acquisition of new political knowledge.
Yet this is essentially the problem of spuriousness or uncontrolled variables--which is a concern for all kinds of social research, whatever entities or levels are considered--and can be assessed and, if need be, adjusted for.
The QAP method is a non-parametric procedure to test the spuriousness of correlations or non-independent relationships between two matrices (Hubert and Schultz, 1976).
Evidence here is broadly applied and its spuriousness or otherwise from an academic point of view is not relevant.
An obvious potential source of spuriousness is party identification--especially when scored in terms of identification with the "administration" and "opposition" parties--with both presidential approval and rates of speech watching.
In particular, these injunctions expose the spuriousness of claims that national sovereignty, rather than human life, is sacrosanct.
Beyond that he proposes to usurp the role of Providence (144), enacting Satan so stagily as to disclose the spuriousness of his whole mise en scene.
Yet at the end of the day, the loss suffered by Russia and China as a result of the Arab Spring will not be limited to people's resentment of their stances, which reveal the spuriousness of the claim that the major figures of communism, past and present, have placed peoples first on their list of priorities.
Perhaps the spuriousness of such grotesque privacy is not perceived, because it is seen as a triumph of the private sphere over the constraints of citizenship.
In his Treatise on Relics (1543), John Calvin asserted that if one could collect and compare all the sacred bones in all the churches of Christendom, 'It would then be seen that every apostle had more than four bodies and each saint at least two or three.' According to Calvin, the possible spuriousness of certain relics--a question that had already disturbed St Augustine in the 4th century--foretold an even greater iniquity: the worship of false gods.
But if the spuriousness of this masque- like, apologetic nostalgia is manifest, that which might constitute the satirist's basis of truth, the counterweight to such false restoration, is nevertheless far from sure.
Her examination foregrounds a trend from the outward bound emphasis of career books during the 1950s and 1960s with their emphasis on mentoring and authority through the late 1960s and 1970s during which stories increasingly focused on demonstrating the failure and spuriousness of that adult authority.