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Nobbe, "Prepulse modulation of the startle reaction and the blink reflex in normal human subjects," Experimental Brain Research, vol.
Detailed measurements of facial muscles during the startle reaction suggest that it is probably a reflex, according to a report in the November JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY.
Still, children with or without disabilities can be expected to demonstrate continuing confusion about events, startle reactions, worry (clinging in young children), sadness, anger, fear, or preoccupation.
Behavioral symptoms include: withdrawal; anger; startle reactions; increased or decreased sexual desire; emotional outbursts; and increased or decreased appetite.
Momentary shakes or accelerations were observed for killer whales (Barrett-Lennard et al., 1996), whereas sperm whales showed strong startle reactions, occasionally involving defecation (Whitehead et al., 1990).