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NAFLD represents a spectrum of diseases ranging from simple excess liver fat, or steatosis, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
Inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] (TNF-[alpha]) and interleukin (IL)-1[beta] further stimulate hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells to induce hepatocyte steatosis and fibrosis, respectively.
In the histological analysis of the liver, we detected microvesicular steatosis in HFD-fed mice (Figure 1).
The diagnosis of NAFLD was based on clinical history of nonalcoholism and established histologic features such as steatosis, lobular inflammation, Mallory hyaline, and hydropic change.
They defined NAFLD by the presence of moderate to severe hepatic steatosis on ultrasonography, and by the absence of iron overload, hepatitis B or C infections, and excessive alcohol consumption.
Grade 3-severe steatosis with higher reduction in beam penetration and loss of echos even from the main branches of the portal veins, and large echo difference between the kidney and liver (11), (12).
The only clinically validated device for non-invasive fibrosis and steatosis quantification, Fibroscan aids in decision making, enhancing both patient and practice management.
The 306 participants were asked about caffeine coffee consumption and categorized into four groups: patients with no sign of fibrosis on ultrasound (control), steatosis, NASH stage 0-1, and NASH stage 2-4.
Among its side effects were injection site reactions, increases in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, and steatosis.
The spectrum of NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to the development of necro-inflammmatory change (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]) to the formation of fibrosis and cirrhosis.
Among the total study subjects, the proportion of subjects with mild steatosis was 19.
So birds, especially some wild waterfowl, are more likely to show non-pathological hepatic steatosis as a consequence of energy storage before migration (Pilo and George, 1983).