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Lesion studies with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) show that deactivation of the pars opercularis of the rIFG leads to more inhibition errors in a Go/NoGo task (e.g., [5]).
Noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as TMS and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience which are able to modulate activity in the neural tissue underlying the stimulating area.
Moreover, application of LFS in both LFS-K and K-LFS protocols significantly increased the number of stimulations required to achieve generalized seizure stages.
Preferred and nonpreferred color light stimulations were provided through LED devices, and the effects of such stimulation in terms of sleep induction were analyzed by measuring the subjects' electroencephalography (EEG), which are physiological signals.
Tentative test stimulations were used to exclude possible side effects.
The continuation of the inhibitory or excitatory effects of TMS after the end of a series of consecutive stimulations has led to the development of another research area for investigating the therapeutic effects of repetitive TMS (rTMS).
Electrical stimulations were delivered with a Permaloc 12-Channel Laboratory Pulse Generator (Synapse Biomedical Inc) controlled from a computer.
Recently, additional neuromodulatory approaches have been FDA-cleared, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS).
Electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (eEABR) are records of the neural activity of the auditory pathway elicited by extracochlear electrical stimulation, particularly of the round window (RW).
A wireless skin patch using electrical stimulation at an intensity lower than pain threshold reduced migraine pain, compared with sham stimulation, in a trial of 71 adults with episodic migraine.
In addition to the application of gastrointestinal kinetic agents, gastrointestinal electrical stimulation (GES) has attracted worldwide attention and has been extensively studied as a potential treatment.
Current reports show that moxibustion effectively treats poor circulation, chronic urticaria, and chronic cough [2-4], but other studies report unintended adverse effects from the direct stimulation including pain, blistering, and suppuration [5, 6].