stipulatio


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stipulatio

in Roman law, the formal contract whereby a party was bound absolutely by using the special words. One party would say ‘spondesne transfer your copy of Aristotle for 20 sesterces’, and the other would say ‘spondeo’. It mattered not in the early law that the party asking the question was applying force or intimidation to the promissor. As the law developed, the prestations became ever more subtle and the defence became wider and consensual contracts based upon the will of the parties took over.
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Praeterea litterarum obligatio fieri uidetur chirographis et syngraphis, id est si quid debere se aut daturum se scribat, ita scilicet si eo nomine stipulatio non fiat (III, p.
This was the formula of the stipulatio in Roman Law.
Difese consistenti nel negare che il diritto dello attore abbia mai avuto esistenza, sia impugnando il fatto materiale che vi serve di fondamento (traditio, stipulatio ecc.), sia impugnando la validita giuridica del fatto medesimo (per dementia, minor aesta ecc.).
En sus origenes, las fuentes de la solidaridad pasiva en el campo contractual, derivan de la Sponsio y la Stipulatio (3), y daban lugar a las obligaciones correales (4).
Ei nudum pactum era entendido como aquello que no era dado en una stipulatio, que tampoco integraba dentro del plano del ius civile un supuesto de hecho tipico de un contrato, ni hacia parte de aquellos casos en los que el pretor concedia una actio honoraria (55).
Pero todo a partir de un ritual: oraciones, gestos, verbos sacramentales: gesta per aes et libram, in jure cessio, mancipatio, sponsio, stipulatio.
Promissory actions played a central role in Roman law (in the stipulatio): it is in the stipulatio that one finds the enforcement of a promise.
Surgio entonces la "stipulatio poenae" como medio intimidante para que el deudor cumpliera lo prometido, de tal manera que, al no hacerlo, debiera la pena pactada, consistente en dar una suma de dinero, cuyo pago si podia forzar el juez.
Under Roman Law, Stipulatio were required for certain oral contracts.
(16) The High Court chose to use the term 'stipulation' in reference to the clauses in which the fees were prescribed, rather than the words 'term,' 'obligation' or 'condition' because it better reflected 'the origin of the penal obligation or condition, as known today, in the stipulation (stipulatio) in Roman law at a period where stipulations for the payment of money were alone valid,' ibid [37].
From 1530, the Luther editions added a marginal gloss, according to which "bund" means a "stipulatio, das Gott sich uns mit gnaden verpflicht und wirs annemen."--cf.