Stratagem

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STRATAGEM. A deception either by words or actions, in times of war, in order to obtain an advantage over an enemy.
     2. Such stratagems, though contrary to morality, have been justified, unless they have been accompanied by perfidy, injurious to the rights of humanity, as in the example given by Vattel of an English frigate, which during a war between France and England, appeared off Calais and made signals of distress in order to allure some vessel to come to its relief, and seized a shallop and its crew, who had generously gone out to render it assistance. Vattel, Droit des Gens, liv. 3, c. 9, Sec. 178.
     3. Sometimes stratagems are employed in making, contracts, this is unlawful and fraudulent, and avoids the contract. See Fraud.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
The former is "the study of the doctrines of the creation and application of rules of stratagems and military strategies in military confrontation." (4) It studies how to use ingenuity to gain advantages at the smallest costs.
The best of your emails and texts Calling racing's Portia To paraphrase The Merchant of Venice, a government that hath no music in itself is fit for treasons, stratagems and spoils - and so we find the sale of the Tote back on the agenda.
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OFF-ROAD DECLARER PLAY: UNUSUAL WAYS TO PLAY A BRIDGE HAND is for intermediate to advanced bridge players seeking less well-known stratagems to enhance the bridge move, from creating entries and surviving bad trump breaks to getting the defenders to help.
Jonathan Clements' entertaining work is largely about the plotters behind the scenes, whose dynasty-arranging stratagems included faking the castration of a well-endowed favourite of the emperor's mother and then incarcerating the 'eunuch' in her palace, thus ensuring that she was too preoccupied to meddle in affairs of state.
Finally, the Appia has been planned with the same ergonomic stratagems marking the Aurelia.
Although he had not believed it at first, Arroyo came to the conclusion that "stratagems were fermenting and plans were afoot to capture her network".
Invariably, his stratagems are the correct ones and Liverpool's players - especially the Spanish contingent - appear to revel in the slower pace and the absence of domestic cloggers.
Occupied with tumult, potent ingeniously interwoven plots within a plot, stratagems, snappy dialog, machination and wondrous creatures Merlin's Kin is filled with the elements of a first rate fantasy.
One-off measures are expiring and initially favorable financial stratagems for adjusting the time-profile of the deficit (stratagems for which the Maastricht rules were an open invitation) are now becoming a burden on the finances.
Every time a cattleman says, "I sell calves not beef, so I don't need a beef checkoff," it reminds me once again how far we still have to go to communicate the importance of cultivating marketing stratagems for U.S.