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Let us suppose that Massey thinks that argument (2) can be treated as an instance of subalternation. In that case, the presentation of argument (2) needs some amendment, and we have a completely different argument which no longer instantiates form (1).
In fact, if adding premises to independent and valid arguments were desirable, we could add not only the first premise of (2) but any other statement, and, as long as we kept in mind that we were dealing with a case of subalternation, we should not have any problem retaining the claim of validity.
In conclusion, Black liberation theology and womanist theology contribute profoundly to subverting the hegemony that concretizes the subalternation of Black America.
In the midst of European subalternation, its congregations in the main have demonstrated self-reliance and a spirit of defiance.
Citing biblical authority, Black seers typically demand that their people strive for self-improvement, by living morally upright lives, and community uplift, by confronting the political establishment that denies them justice and concretizes their subalternation. Thus, the tradition produces counter-ruling class ideology: it teaches Blacks that they must confront the racist ideology that deceives them, and devise effective strategies for subverting the dominant order.
The problem is that we have now committed ourselves to a semantics, a semantics which does not warrant subalternation. It would have been better to cast around for a neutral rendition, or, should that prove too difficult, to dispense with symbolism.
However, even if there is no existence claim implicit in a categorical proposition, the problem with subalternation remains.
Rather, the subalternation of disciplines results in a reciprocal relation between philosophy and theology.
Thus, Black Studies is indisputably a counter-hegemonic intellectual enterprise designed to liberate exploited people from European cultural subalternation.
Finally, still others defend the subalternation of Africans on scientific grounds, validating their perspectives through a theoretical appeal to the cultural and natural differences of humankind.
The relation that will help us is subalternation, and it exists between the universal and particular forms of two propositions which have the same subject and predicate when both are affirmative or both negative.
Subalternation exists not only in the categorical square of opposition--the one just described--but also in the modal square of opposition, and it is with this latter than we will be concerned.