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Related to subjunction: subjugation, subjunctive mood
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The following examples illustrate typical uses of the concessive subjunctions mentioned in (v) and (vi) respectively: (1) a.
On the one hand, loosely integrated subjunctions are part of productive patterns -- such as German (va) on the scale of integration (auch ...
On the other hand, highly integrated subjunctions are part of unproductive patterns: for example, German (vd) wenngleich vs.
Consider first the subjunctions containing a conditional element.
Figures (1) and (2) show the subjunctions in German and Italian according to their degree of semantic bleaching (square brackets indicate a rare variant).
In German, these subjunctions always retain their original temporal semantics (meaning `even when', `even during', etc.) and cannot be used in a purely concessive sense.
Figure (3) shows the concessive subjunctions in German and Italian based on a temporal element.
Let us now turn to the subjunctions containing a quantitative element.
Morphologically highly integrated and semantically highly bleached subjunctions tend to occur more frequently in tightly integrated hypotactic constructions -- in subordinate clauses without a finite verb, in interposed subordinate clauses, in subordinate clauses followed by a superordinate clause with verb-first position (in German) and in subordinate clauses with a subjunctive (in Italian).
The tables show that in both languages morphologically and semantically poorly grammaticalized subjunctions do not, or only rarely, occur in nonfinite sentences (e.g.
Tables (3) and (4) indicate that highly grammaticalized subjunctions (e.g.
Table (5) shows -- for the various concessive subjunctions -- the occurrences of "normal" verb-first position in a postposed superordinate clause.