Ignacio Madrazo et al., "Transplantation of Fetal Substantia
Nigra an Adrenal Medulla to the Caudate Nucleus in Two Patients with Parkinson's Disease," New England Journal of Medicine 318 (January 7, 1988), 51; Olle Lindvall et al., cited in Georgina Ferry, "New Cells for Old Brains," New Scientist (March 24, 1988), 54-58; "British Fetal Cell Implants," New York Times (April 19, 1988), 27.
Due to degeneration of substantia
nigra and/ or Globus pallidus concentration of dopamine in nigrostriatal system is reduced.
Arzberger, "Microglia activation is related to substantia
nigra echogenicity," Journal of Neural Transmission, vol.
When the authors counted the number of TH-positive neurons, the different types of microscopes, various magnification (such as x10, x40, x100, and x200), different sample drawing areas of the substantia
nigra, different numbers of specimens of brain glass (such as 3 brain slices or 5 brain slices), different slices of brain tissue thickness (such as cut into 20 [micro]m and 30 [micro]m), and use of diverse anesthetics (such as chloral hydrate, pentobarbital sodium, and urethane) in different studies may contribute to this discrepancy.
The central amygdala projection to the substantia
nigra reflects prediction error information in appetitive conditioning.
While portions of globus pallidus and pars reticularis of substantia
nigra have relatively higher iron content in healthy individuals, patients of PKAN have excessive amounts of iron accumulated in these nuclei.
Present study intends to investigate the neuro protective potential of polydatin against Parkinson disease, its effects on neuro-motor behavior and dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in striatum and substantia
nigra of brain in Parkinson disease using rats as mammalian model.
Parkinson's disease is a degenerative, progressive disorder characterised by the dramatic reduction of nerve cells, particularly dopamine neurons that are involved in movement initiation, in an area of the brain called the substantia
The disorder is due to a loss of nerve cells in an area deep within the brain called the substantia
The main hallmark of neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease is the presence of activated microglia in the substantia
nigra of humans  and animal models of that disease [4-6].
Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism occur due to deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the substantia