In calculating the surcharge, another indicator, the use of short-term wholesale funding, is calculated and used in place of the substitutability
indicator, and that score is used to calculate a surcharge under a slighdy different formula than under method 1.
The reason why a logical inference chain is not applicable to drug substitutability
rules is because G, EQ and the corresponding reference drug are not identical pharmaceutical products regarding rate and extent of bioavailability, even if they are considered as therapeutically comparable (REF vs EQ) or sufficiently bioequivalent (REF vs G) to a same reference drug product.
The deviation tariff is decreasing in the cooperative tariff at a given point in time only because Home's best response tariff in a static set up is decreasing in the Foreign tariff due to strategic substitutability
would increase dramatically, and humans would provide nothing except executive decision-making.
What our results show is that imperfect substitutability
did exist over this pre-crisis sample, but that the coefficients on the two supply variables are reduced when compared to the post-2008 sample.
Secondly, we have imposed zero cross price effects: [[beta].sub.ts] = 0 for t [not equal to] s for t = d,n in the first stage and [[beta].sub.hj] = 0 for h [not equal to] j for [for all] h [member of] [t] and t= [d,n] in the second stage, in order to test whether there exists a relationship of substitutability
or complementarity among different hourly demands.
It has also been suggested that the beta value is a measure of substitutability
between goods produced in different countries also has an extensive empirical confirmation.
Many factors, for example, new innovation in technology, drugs, diagnostic tools, prices and access to services, case management strategies, among others determine the degree of substitutability
of health care (11).
It produces, in other words, a substitutability
of person by indicating perceptual surfaces while refusing to substitute one thing for another.
: The systemic importance of a single component increases in cases where it is difficult for the components of the system to provide the same or similar services in the event of failure.
How does product substitutability
affect competition strategies?