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The finding that worker recognition in the form of symbolic awards matches the impact of meaning and that the combination of meaning and recognition together does not lead to higher performance than either in isolation suggests that both meaning and recognition work via the same motivational channel, with substitutive effects on performance.
In any event, although the initial allocation of new doctors was predominantly substitutive, new professionals were introduced, possibly along with new practices, technological innovations, and approaches to the organization and management of local primary health care services, which this kind of study is unable to assess or analyze.
but this is very different from the market substitutive harm that
Evidently, substitutive services lead to stronger competition and challenge telcos' traditional revenue streams, whereas complementary services contribute to a consumer's higher valuation of the commodified internet access and are thus supporting the generation of revenues for telcos (PEITZ et al.
After an informed consent, the patients were started on L-thyroxine at substitutive doses, starting at 50mcg once daily.
ClickPress, Fri Apr 10 2015] Volume sales of noodles declined in 2014 due to strengthening competition from substitutive pasta products and the slowly declining trend of cooking at home as consumers increasingly preferred to dine out.
It produces a disintegration of long-term relationships, because substitutive retribution, while psychologically understood, is ethically invalid.
No participant generated downward, substitutive, hetero-directed or counterfactual thoughts referring to an unusual event.
Klos, Modeling of joint substitutive rigidity of board elements, Annals of Warsaw University of Life Science, Forestry and Wood Technology No.
8% were resolved by summary trial, a situation in which the defendant pleads guilty in exchange for substitutive measures to the application of the sentence, that is, in place of being imprisoned.
However, if silence, as far as writing tutors are concerned, is to become what Wlodzimierz Sobkowiak calls '"meaningful absence of speech' (Jaworski 1993: 66), in that it emphasizes the volitional, teleological, substitutive, and contextual aspects of CS [communicative silence]" (44), then writing tutors ought to acquaint themselves with the many meanings of silence in order to convey them clearly and effectively in tutoring sessions.
Therefore, from this viewpoint, internal R&D and cooperation agreements do not necessarily have to be substitutive strategies, but both contribute to the development of better communication networks between internal and external knowledge, which will lead to increased innovation output (LIN; HSIAO; LIN, 2013).