This simple logic reflects the reality that a core function of a federal system, which is to diversify locally, conflicts with the very telos of many international delegations, which is to harmonize supranationally
. To be sure, this point is tendered at a high level of abstraction: there are different kinds of federal systems and a rich variety of international delegations.
authority and political judgment is exercised supranationally
We will argue that: (1) "international management" applies not only to the unidirectional crossing of national borders but also to the two-directional learning experienced by managers outside their home environments; (2) "global" and "transnational" add a mental mindset to the more material content of the crossing of borders by factors of production (including knowledge) and firms; (3) the study of international management has benefited from the "transnational" perspective of considering both "global" and "local" threats and opportunities, and (4) "management" is a socially constructed activity that takes place in all sorts of organizations--private, public, for profit or not, at home, abroad and supranationally
It is also reasonable to ask whether supervision, be it nationally or supranationally
organized, can reduce systemic risk effectively.
Both the Schuman Plan and the finalized European Army proposal, known as the Pleven Plan, had supranational elements that would force Churchill to choose publicly between a supranationally
unified Europe without Britain or an intergovernmentally integrated Europe with Britain but without effective economic and military unity.
Globalization means a trans- or supranationally
coordinated decision-making system that feeds from a network of national organizations, both large and small.