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So entropy measures the 'surprisal' or--perhaps more specifically--the importance of an event (8) for the receiver; that is to say, it is the measure of deviations from his expectations, and the measure of surprisal of the receiver is correlated to the selections of the source.
7) The transformation of surprisal to information takes place within the observing system only.
Touching the adventures and perils which the Underwriters are contented to bear and do take upon themselves, they are of the seas, men-of-war, fire, lightning, earthquake, enemies, pirates, rovers, assailing thieves, jettisons, letters of mart and counter-mart, surprisals, takings at sea, arrest, restraints and detainments of all -kings, princes and peoples, of what nation, condition or quality soever; barratry of the master and mariners, and all other like perils, losses and misfortunes that have or shall come in the hurt, detriment or damage of the vessel, or any part thereof.