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Related to synovial fluid: synovial joint, synovitis, synovial fluid analysis


United; coupled together in interest; shared between two or more persons; not solitary in interest or action but acting together or in unison. A combined, undivided effort or undertaking involving two or more individuals. Produced by or involving the concurring action of two or more; united in or possessing a common relation, action, or interest. To share common rights, duties, and liabilities.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


adj., adv. referring to property, rights or obligations which are united, undivided and shared by two or more persons or entities. Thus, a joint property held by both cannot be effectively transferred unless all owners join in the transaction. If a creditor sues to collect a joint debt, he/she must include all the debtors in the lawsuit, unless the debt is specifically "joint and several," meaning anyone of the debtors may be individually liable. Therefore, care must be taken in drafting deeds, sales agreements, promissory notes, joint venture agreements, and other documents. A joint tenancy is treated specially, since it includes the right of the survivor to get the entire property when the other dies (right of survivorship). (See: joint tenancy, joint and several, joint venture, tenancy in common)

Copyright © 1981-2005 by Gerald N. Hill and Kathleen T. Hill. All Right reserved.

JOINT. United, not separate; as, joint action, or one which is brought by several persons acting together; joint bond, a bond given by two or more obligors.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
Another study found that soluble ST2 suppressed LPS-induced IL-6 production in THP-1 cells.[7] In our study, there were elevated ST2 levels in RA patients' serum and synovial fluid, and in the subsequent in vitro study, we found that soluble ST2 could suppress not only IL-33 but also IL-1[sz] in resting RASFs.
Butler, "Surfactants identified in synovial fluid and their ability to act as boundary lubricants," Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol.
Suzuki et al., "Human mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid increase in the knee with degenerated cartilage and osteoarthritis," Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol.
In adolescent patients, cytokine levels in synovial fluid were not influenced by the time elapsed from trauma (Table 2); consequently, samples were considered as a single group.
IL-15 has been found to be highly expressed in the synovial fluid of RA patients [34].
Results from the synovial fluid samples showed that the polyphenols found in Pycnogenol, including taxifolin, ferulic acid, and catechin, were distributed throughout the synovial fluid in the Pycnogenol-tested group.
Hence, the use of metabolomics for the study of osteoarthritic synovial fluid would help in providing a panel of biomarkers that could be used both for diagnosis and for therapeutic management (49).
The presence of inflammatory infiltrates in synovial membranes of joints with primary OA, the association between synovial inflammation and structural joint injury and OA progression, the presence of inflammatory mediators in blood and synovial fluid of patients with OA and "in vitro" studies that have identified potential mechanisms by which inflammatory mediators cause cartilage injury linking it to OA progression are providing new insights in the pathogenesis of this particular type of arthritis.
Arthrocentesis has proven to be very effective as numerous studies have shown the diagnostic and therapeutic value of arthrocentesis while emphasizing the low incidence of associated complications.12 Studies have been carried out to determine the effect of arthrocentesis on synovial fluid level of cytokines.
The investigators studied synovial fluid or tissue from 32 patients with LA who were representative of the spectrum of disease severity and treatment responses seen in this disease.