Classification of these families and their constituent genera has been one of the most troublesome problems for systematists
(for an overview of the controversies, see J.
This again suggests that the discriminant analysis identifies and distinguishes the species using aspects of their form different than those previously used by systematists
Lichenizing fungi typically don't have a lot of fancy morphology like flowers or bones that systematists
can use for classification.
Even those who are systematists
usually specialize in no more than a few families within an order.
Polyploidy via genome duplication within one species (autopolyploidy) has typically been considered of little importance evolutionarily, although recent work suggests that plant systematists
may be overlooking many species which have arisen through this process (Judd et al.
Incensed with a misguided perception of scientists (especially, but not only, foreign nationals) as potential biopirates bent on exploiting this "national genetic patrimony", IBAMA officers have often threatened systematists
and ecologists with heavy fines and even imprisonment for having collected one more specimen of a frog or an insect without due license, for having provisionally examined collected material in an institution other than the one for which it was earmarked for permanent holding, or for not reporting beforehand the collection of a new species that was just being described.
The international community of taxonomists and systematists
are reconstructing the great tree of life.
The work is intended for mammalogists, systematists
, ecologists and zoogeographers.
who have studied the question--Chapin (1917, 1929, 1954), Sushkin (1927), Delacour (1943), Tordoff (1954), Wolters (1957, 1960), Friedman (1960, 1962), Bentz (1979), Sibley & Ahlquist (1990), Lahti & Payne (2003), and Fry & Keith (2004)--placed the whydahs closer to their hosts, the waxbills, than to any other systematic group.
in recent years broadly agree on the distinction between primary and secondary homology (e.
I may be criticized for saying that some of the controversies of systematists
approach the bitterness of political orators.
believe that most and perhaps nearly all of the remaining 90 percent can be discovered, diagnosed, and named in as little as one-10th that time--about 25 years.