While one Swedish government study indicated that larger workplaces were more likely to be supportive of fathers' taking leave (SOU, 2005), the study by Bygren and Duvander (2006) of couples in Stockholm found that fathers were more likely to take leave in smaller workplaces.
Swedish fathers in the public sector usually receive higher wage compensation for taking leave than fathers in the private sector (e.g., 90 percent vs.
Some researchers have assumed that women's domination of service jobs is the reason why service companies are supportive of fathers' taking leave, while others have speculated that service occupations are characterized by less traditional, more employee-drive work design that includes an element of flexibility in combining work and family roles (Burud & Tumolo, 2004).
Companies are considered to be supportive of fathers taking parental leave when: (a) formal policies and support programs for leavetaking fathers are in place; (b) fathers taking leave experience positive informal support from managers and co-workers; and (c) a large proportion of fathers take their entitlement to leave, helping to establish a workplace norm of fathers taking leave.
A second major aim of the study was to explore whether there was a class bias in support for fathers' taking leave, and if this was increasing, decreasing or staying the same over time.
Child or Family Care--Employees taking leave
upon the birth, adoption, or placement of a foster child under paragraph 3a, above, or for the care of a son, daughter, spouse, or parent under paragraph 3b, above, |select one: must use accrued; may elect to use accrued~ vacation, personal, or family leave (if applicable) prior to taking unpaid leave.
In both years, the employee's own health was the most commonly mentioned reason for taking leave; however, employees who took leave in 2000 were less likely to do so for their own health than were employees in 1995 and more likely to take leave for other reasons, such as maternity or disability, care for an ill spouse, or care for an ill parent.
Although overall leave taking did not increase from 1995 to 2000, taking leave covered by the FMLA did.
A large majority of leave takers said that taking leave had positive effects on their ability to care for family members (78.7 percent), their own or family members' emotional well-being (70.1 percent), and their own or family members' physical health (63.0 percent); among those who cited positive effects on health, a large majority said that taking leave made it easier for them to comply with doctors' instructions (93.5 percent) and led to a quicker recovery period (83.7 percent).
The most commonly cited reason for this group's not taking leave was financial, with 77 percent saying that they did not take leave because they could not afford it, a significant increase from 1995, when about two-thirds of those needing, but not taking, leave (65.9 percent) said that the reason was financial.
As shown in the following tabulation, about three-quarters of employees with children aged 18 months or younger work at FMLA-covered work sites: (23) Percent Share and reason Men Women Share covered 75.0 74.5 Share covered and eligible 66.7 56.3 Share taking leave for a covered reason 45.1 75.8 Reason for leave, across all leaves taken: Own health 9.1 15.3 Maternity-disability .0 32.4 Newborn, newly adopted child, or newly placed foster child 34.1 35.8