The final style of moccasin made by the Apache is an adaptation of the Southern Plains two-piece type, with tanned hide
uppers, frequently though not exclusively incorporating a heel fringe, and with hard rawhide soles.
Until that time, shoemakers would travel from home to home, using locally tanned hides
to custom-make a family's footwear.
The new rules, which will apply as from 4 March 2011, will exempt packaged pet food, biodiesel, tanned hides
and skins and some other products from veterinary controls, since potential health risks from those products are mitigated by appropriate treatments.
Oakes' grandmother, aunt and mother taught her how to do beadwork, her mom tanned hides
and made jackets and mitts that sold at the local hardware stores.
To help repel water and keep the tanned hides
soft and supple after exposure to moisture, the brain-tanned skins were smoked on a rack or otherwise suspended over a smokey fire until the oils from the smoke evenly penetrated the skin.
Mohawk Tannery produced tanned hides
for leather from 1924 to 1984.
Ross said the new order does not limit the importation of the following animal parts originating from any cervid in the quarantined states and provinces: meat, without the backbone; skull plate with attached antlers, tanned hides
, raw hides, or cape with no visible brain or spinal cord material present; upper canine teeth with no root structure or soft material present; and taxidermy mounts.