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Related to testicular sperm aspiration: percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration
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In many azoospermic men, particularly men with obstructive azoospermia (OA), testicular sperm retrieval is performed as a randomly located open biopsy using a scalpel [1, 2]; testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) using a needle, gauge 19-26 [3, 4]; or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) using a TruCut "gun" needle, gauge 14 or 18 [5, 6].
Three testicular sperm retrieval techniques have been described: testicular sperm aspiration (TESA), TESE and microdissection-TESE (MD-TESE).
In obstructive azoospermia (OA) sperm can be retrieved by microsurgical sperm aspiration (MESA), percutaneous sperm aspiration (PESA), testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in more than 90% of cycles.