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Circumstantial epistemic bad luck with respect to testimonial injustice is presented according to what Ishani Maitra, in her essay "The Nature of Epistemic Injustice," calls a "continuity argument." (59) Fricker offers the examples of (1) an extremely shy testifier whose failure to meet the eyes of his interlocutor and self-conscious pauses are taken to indicate a general insincerity; (2) an "honest second-hand car salesman" who is taken for being dishonest by virtue of his profession; and 3) a habitual liar who is disbelieved when she is telling the truth due to being a confirmed liar.
If we wish to participate fully in the meaning-generating process, we need to respect and take account of the disconnection itself, as well as its abstract origins, a process that allows us to perceive the past events--receive them, in fact--on behalf of the testifier. The shared nature of this enterprise is what Dori Laub identifies when he states that, "It is the encounter and the coming together between the survivor and the listener, which makes possible something like a repossession of the act of witnessing.
The testifier is surprised by its sudden visitation, and resists in vain its shaking impact.
Using this data, the testifier concluded that there is "ample room
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings (which began in April 1996 and ended in March 1998), conducted around the country and reported extensively in all eleven official languages across a range of media, provided just such a memory prompt for individuals (those who actively participated in the process as testifiers and second-person witnesses to that testimony, as well as those who merely heard about the process) and also for institutions like big business, the judiciary, the health sector, the media and political parties.
These roles include: Standards Developer, Reviewer, Testifier, Educator, and Constant Student.
not simply a factual given that is reproduced and replicated by the testifier, but a genuine advent, an event in its own right" (Felman and Laub 62).
Both these uses of the early jury as testifier of fact made some sense.
(161) Although the Yates defense brought forth evidence of Dietz's brochure distribution during cross-examination in an effort to portray Dietz as a "professional testifier," (162) Dietz did not seem apologetic.
The relational nature of morality found in the personal testimony of pro-choice films is distinct from the rule-based standards typically found both in public policy debate and in pro-life rhetoric; and 3) Personal testimony in pro-choice films illustrates a feminist epistemology which relies on women's positions as testifier and/or witness.
Knowledge in the testimony is, in other words, not simply a factual given that is reproduced and replicated by the testifier, but a genuine advent, an event in its own right" (Felman and Laub 62).