The simultaneous finding of a new carnivore, a new tick vector
, and a new zoonotic pathogen in Denmark demonstrates that the unexpected recent wave of large carnivores migrating over long distances into Denmark is more than a theoretical risk to human and animal health.
The natural hosts of both the tick vector
and bacterium are wild mammals and birds, and occasionally other taxa, with humans being accidental hosts for the vector and accidental and likely dead-end hosts for the bacterium.
The prevalence of coinfecting pathogens among ticks is determined by several factors including the regional geographic distributions of tick vectors
, regional tick density, and existing endemic coinfections among ticks and their zoonotic reservoir hosts.
Implications of climate change on the distribution of the tick vector
Ixodes scapularis and risk for Lyme disease in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region.
The information gained from tick surveillance regarding tick vectors
, disease incidence, and pathogen prevalence is invaluable.
Besides the two major tick vectors
, other species of Haemaphysalis, Ixodes, Hyalomma, Dermacentor and Rhipicephalus are capable of transmitting the pathogen.
The epidemiology of TBRF is determined by the prevalence of tick vectors
and the number of infected ticks (Cutler et al.
The accuracy of case classification and surveillance can be improved by educating health-care providers regarding 1) the expected geographic distribution of tick vectors
and 2) recommendations for confirmatory testing to distinguish between the causative organisms of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis.
Although all life stages of this species occur on deer, it is reasonable to test these one-host ectoparasites for the presence of Borrelia species that could be transmitted to deer by multi-host tick vectors
Rickettsia are maintained in nature in tick vectors
found in high grass, low shrubs, woodlands, fields, and at the forest edge.
West Coast, the bacterium responsible for Lyme disease is transmitted through a more complex network of infected animal hosts and tick vectors
than on the East Coast, according to a new study.
Possible explanations include unreported lone star tick populations, immigration of seropositive deer, alternative tick vectors
for HRTV, or presence of a serologically cross-reactive virus.