The natural hosts of both the tick vector
and bacterium are wild mammals and birds, and occasionally other taxa, with humans being accidental hosts for the vector and accidental and likely dead-end hosts for the bacterium.
The prevalence of coinfecting pathogens among ticks is determined by several factors including the regional geographic distributions of tick vectors
, regional tick density, and existing endemic coinfections among ticks and their zoonotic reservoir hosts.
Implications of climate change on the distribution of the tick vector
Ixodes scapularis and risk for Lyme disease in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region.
Besides the two major tick vectors
, other species of Haemaphysalis, Ixodes, Hyalomma, Dermacentor and Rhipicephalus are capable of transmitting the pathogen.
For tick collections visits to villagers' houses, animal and poultry shelters were done by daylight in localities favorable to the nocturnal feeding habits of the soft tick vector
, and people were randomly questioned regarding their geographic origin and the frequency of tick bites.
According to them, persons living in endemic areas should use personal protective measures that include avoidance of areas where tick vectors
are abundant and when they are active, regular examination of clothing and skin for ticks, and their removal and use of repellents.
Although all life stages of this species occur on deer, it is reasonable to test these one-host ectoparasites for the presence of Borrelia species that could be transmitted to deer by multi-host tick vectors
. While a related species, D.
Rickettsia are maintained in nature in tick vectors
found in high grass, low shrubs, woodlands, fields, and at the forest edge.
West Coast, the bacterium responsible for Lyme disease is transmitted through a more complex network of infected animal hosts and tick vectors
than on the East Coast, according to a new study.
To the Editor: The timely study on the relative risk for ehrlichiosis and Lyme disease in which the tick vectors
, Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis, are sympatric notes that knowledge of tickborne diseases is "startlingly low" (1).
Furthermore, the tick vectors
are numerous and widespread, so tick control with acaricides (chemicals intended to kill ticks) is only a realistic option for well-managed livestock production facilities.
"The predicted effect of climate change on tick vectors
, and therefore on disease, is quite profound," he says.