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Hao et al., "Overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 attenuates tonically active glutamatergic input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertensive rats," The American Journal of Physiology--Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol.
Theses neurons are tonically active under normal conditions.
Previous study from our laboratory demonstrated that in renovascular hypertensive rats (2K-1C), the glutamatergic synapses within RVLM are tonically active, since injection of the broad-spectrum ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid, into the RVLM causes a long lasting fall in blood pressure [5].
The ppENK gene encodes met-enkephalin, which is a tonically active inhibitory factor that interacts with the opioid growth factor receptor.
Goodman, Editor-in-Chief of Experimental Biology and Medicine, added that this compelling evidence confirmed the absolute requirement for OGFr (and OGF) as a tonically active inhibitory regulatory mechanism in ovarian cancer.
Constitutive steroidogenesis in ovine large luteal cells may be mediated by tonically active protein kinase A.
Superior laryngeal and hypoglossal afferents tonically influence upper airway motor excitability in anesthetized rats.
One working hypothesis is that antidepressants address dysfunctional amygdala activity tonically by influencing the lower limbic regions, the neuroscientist said.
A tonically high noradrenergic state may reduce the threshold of the hippocampus to stimuli, thus leading to increased distractibility, a "merger" of the two theories [68].
One set of interneurons responds phasically and regulates the contractions in LM, and another responds tonically and produces the peristaltic wave (Winlow and Laverack, 1972a, b).
During other phases of the estrous cycle, LH is released tonically. Average concentrations increase during diestrus, then decrease and remain low during most of metestrus.