The mean performance for GDS-SF, state anxiety, and trait anxiety
inventories were not within the clinical range of scores at the group level, although some participants did score in these ranges.
The combination of a high ego orientation coupled with a low task orientation also was predicted to relate to higher trait anxiety
among study participants (White, 1998; White & Zellner, 1996).
It has also been correlated with annoyance and trait anxiety
(Fyhri and Aasvang 2010; Stansfeld et al.
By producing increased anxiety, an overidentification tendency can also lead to high trait anxiety
Actualizacion psicometrica y funcionamiento diferencial del item en el State Trait Anxiety
For trait anxiety
the diagnostic subsets showed average improvements by 10.
Significant positive correlations were found between SSI-R categories and Total Stress scores and the scores on the Test Anxiety, State and Trait Anxiety
and Beck Depression Inventory, respectively.
The State and Trait Anxiety
Inventory (STAI; Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1970) was selected as a second tool for measuring anxiety.
Within Spielberger's anxiety model, trait anxiety
is described as a stable personality trait, whereas, state anxiety is a transient experience caused by a specific perceived threat.
It is a self report instrument designed to measure both state (STAI-S) and trait anxiety
(STAI-T) that consists of two scales and each scales include 20 items.
On the trait anxiety
scale, participants responded according to how the items described them "in general", whereas on the state anxiety inventory participants indicated the extent to which items described them "at that particular moment".
However, eight studies used healthy volunteers (n = 877) who had normal levels of anxiety, were undergoing surgery, tested at the upper limit of the normal range of a trait anxiety
scale, had adverse premenstrual symptoms or were peri-menopausal, reported anxiety and insomnia, or had one month or more of elevated generalized anxiety.