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TRANSLATION. The copy made in one language of what has been written, or spoken in another.
     2. In pleading, when a libel or an agreement, written in a foreign language, must be averred, it is necessary that a translation of it should also be given.
     3. In evidence, when a witness is unable to speak the English language so as to convey his ideas, a translation of his testimony must be made. In that case, an interpreter should be sworn to translate to him, on oath, the questions propounded to him, and to translate to the court and jury his answers. 4 Mass. 81; 5 Mass. 219; 2 Caines' Rep. 155; Louis. Code of Pr. 784, 5.
     4. It has been determined that a copyright may exist in a translation, as a literary work. 3 Ves. & Bea. 77; 2 Meriv. 441, n.
     5. In the ecclesiastical law, translation denotes the removal from one place to another.; as, the bishop was translated from the diocese of A, to that of B. In the civil law, translation signifies the transfer of property. Clef des Lois Rom. h.t.
     6. Swinburne applies the term translation to the bestowing of a legacy which had been given to one, on another; this is a species of ademption, (q.v.) but it differs from it in this, that there may be an ademption without a translation, but there can be no translation without an ademption. Bac. Ab. Legacies, C.
     7. By translation is also meant the transfer of property, but in this sense it is seldom used. 2 Bl. Com. 294. Vide Interpreter.

References in periodicals archive ?
It seems SMN and CLX additively are exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in OA cases and these effects attribute to both transcriptionally and translationally down-regulation of involved mediators in both signaling pathways.
The research findings can be found in the 1st March issue of Genes and Development under the title, "AMD1 is essential for ESC self-renewal and is translationally down-regulated on differentiation to neural precursor cells"by Dawei Zhang (1,4), Tianyun Zhao (1,4), Haw Siang Ang (2), Peini Chong (1), Ryotaro Saiki (3), Kazuei Igarashi (3), Henry Yang (2), and Leah A.
They opened their classic paper by stating that "Any lattice in which the hydrogen atoms would be translationally identical (Bravais lattice) would have metallic properties" [19].
The study was based on a mouse model of type 1 diabetes that shares many similarities with human models to demonstrate the therapeutic effectiveness of dendritic cells electroporated (eDC) with translationally enhanced interleukin-4 (IL-4) messenger RNA, known as eDC/IL-4.
In particular, the technique was used to measure the translational temperature of nitric oxide molecules translationally cooled via single collisions with argon atoms.

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