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* Transplacement: Joint action by elements of the power elite and elements of the opposition.
One possibility is transplacement, that is, joint action by members of the ruling elite acting in concert with elements of political civil society in the long term.
transformation, replacement and transplacement see Huntington, 1991, pp.124-174.
In such cases of "transformation" or "transplacement," new elites will gradually rise to political power, learning to share political responsibilities along the way.
This transition to democracy via compromise (what Samuel Huntington called "transplacement") shaped subsequent political development in an important way: political power shifted from old leaders to new elites in a slow, incremental fashion.
The transition through "transplacement" produced several important consequences relating to the alliance's stability.
Job sharing, telecommuting, sabbaticals, reentry into the workplace after the childbearing years, and transplacement programs to help the trailing spouse find a new job are examples of new initiatives offered to accommodate work/ life needs.
Huntington classifies transitions into three main types: transformation, replacement, and transplacement. These labels are unnecessarily jargonistic; we prefer to speak of three routes--top-down, bottom-up, and negotiated political change--distinguished according to whether state elites, opposition forces, or both take the lead in pressing transition forward.
By the end of 1992 the government and the ANC leadership were being attacked from the left and the right in ways that suggested that the alliance necessary for transplacement to occur was close to being cemented, despite the fact--indeed, perhaps partly because of it--that the all-party CODESA constitutional negotiations were officially still on hold.(20) (These had broken down earlier in the year when the ANC withdrew following a massacre for which it held the government responsible.) New bilateral negotiations in September 1992 led to a Record of Understanding between the government and the ANC, a clear indication that by then they conceived of themselves as the two principal players.
A Huntingtonian transplacement thus seemed to be well under way by this time, with the government committed to multiracial elections by April 1994 and the possibility of an interim government before then.
If a transplacement was under way by early 1993, its outcome was by no means assured.
These twenty-first century works continue the intercultural and interlingual transplacements that so defined eighteenth-century Russian literature, thereby throwing into relief pertinent historical and literary attitudes.