motioning, tutor praising, and reading organized accurately were rarely seen when the study was conducted, and these were said to be the main parts of the process (Topping et al., 2011).
Here, the tutee
is guided by the tutor to ask questions pertaining to the illustrations at the beginning of the story.
In addition, the authors found students benefited from this form of instruction regardless of the role they held, be it as tutor, tutee
, or when sharing both roles.
who needed to use his phone and online tutoring due to his work schedule and a long commute commented, "The tutoring session allowed me to always get the As no matter where I was...
E-tutoring ranges from synchronous individual support to asynchronous message exchange between tutors and tutees
It relates to the tutees
' responses to the feedback they received.
While the benefits to tutees
may be readily apparent, e.g., assistance with coursework from a more knowledgeable and approachable peer, there are a number of benefits to the tutor.
Once the research team determined categories and articulated theory about how tutors and tutees
interact, they turn in the final chapter to other, more recent studies and popular theories (such as Marysia Johnson's  theory of co-construction and applications of Lev Vygotsky's  Zone of Proximal Development) to see if and how well their theory of writing center tutorials fits these popular theories related to second language acquisition and learning theory, respectively.
Researchers have found that tutors, in addition to their tutees
, improve their mastery and understanding of the skills and concepts in which they are teaching (Fuchs, Fuchs, & Burish, 2000; Juel, 1996; Shanahan, 1998; Taylor, Hanson, Justice-Swanson, & Watts, 1997).
This anecdote demonstrates that some students learned that their willingness to accept and relate in a personal way to their tutee
allowed them to make a connection that supported their tutee
Research lists multiple benefits for both tutees
and tutors on cognitive (e.g.
In this technique, students function equally both as tutor and tutee
. Tutors are providers of instruction while tutees
are recipients of instruction.