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A person chosen to decide a question in a controversy that has been submitted to Arbitration but has not been resolved because the arbitrators cannot reach agreement, or one who has been chosen to be a permanent arbitrator for the duration of a collective bargaining agreement.

Arbitration is the submission of a dispute to an unbiased third person designated by the parties to the controversy, who agree in advance to comply with the decision. Arbitration is quicker, less expensive, and more informal than a court proceeding. Commercial arbitration and labor arbitration are commonplace in the United States. Persons who hear these types of dispute resolution cases are called arbitrators and umpires. Umpires are used either to break an impasse in arbitration or to serve as specialized, long-term decision makers.

An arbitrator is a person selected by the parties to hear the dispute. An arbitrator must be mutually agreed upon by the parties and may be named, for example, in a labor-management Collective Bargaining agreement or may be chosen after the dispute has arisen. In labor arbitration a single arbitrator may hear a case, but frequently a three-member arbitration panel hears the dispute. The three members consist of an arbitrator selected by management, another chosen by labor, and a chairperson selected either by the parties or by the two arbitrators appointed by the parties. The arbitrators selected by the parties act like advocates, but the chairperson is expected to be neutral.

If the three-person panel cannot agree on a decision, the arbitrators may name an umpire to decide the controversy. The umpire acts independently and is vested with the sole authority to decide the issues that have been presented.

An umpire is also sometimes used in labormanagement grievance proceedings. In this situation a single, permanent umpire is appointed to resolve disputes for the term of the collective bargaining agreement. The umpire becomes familiar with the economic, financial, and dayto-day working conditions of an industry and may rely on precedents developed by previous umpires. This form of umpire system began in the anthracite coal mining industry in the early 1900s and has been used in other industries, including clothing manufacturing and newspaper printing.


Alternative Dispute Resolution; Grievance Procedure; Labor Law; Labor Union.


noun adjudicator, arbiter, arbitrator, disceptator, go-between, interagent, intercessor, intermediator, intermedium, intervenor, judge, mediator, moderator, peacemaker, reconciler, referee
See also: decide, go-between, intercede, judge, mediate, negotiate, referee, rule

UMPIRE. A person selected by two or more arbitrators. When they are authorize to do so by the submission of the parties, and they cannot agree as to the subject-matter referred to them, whose duty it is to decide the matter in dispute. Sometimes the term is applied to a single arbitrator, selected by the parties themselves. Kyd on Awards, 6, 75, 77 Caldw. on Arb. 38; Dane's Ab. Index, h.t.; 3 Vin. Ab. 93; Com. Dig. Arbitrament, F; 4 Dall. 271, 432; 4 Sco. N. S. 378; Bouv. Inst. Index, h.t.

References in periodicals archive ?
TO provide fresh impetus to Indian umpires to break into the ICC Elite Panel, the BCCI is planning to entice and fast- track retired players into umpiring -- almost 20 years after a similar scheme had failed.
24 umpires each in three attended course with focus on technique of Cricket Umpiring and Interpretation and Application of the Laws of Cricket, while the other part related to practical umpiring for at least five overs each in match situation.
Speaking to Gulf News, Ali, who has umpired almost every day during the domestic cricket season for 28 years, said: "I have been lucky to learn about umpiring from many great umpires, attended courses conducted by legendary international umpires and closely interacted with some of the best in business.
Mr Willey and former colleague Mr Sharp, 64, who have 45 years of umpiring experience between them, were removed from the ECB's first class umpire list for the 2015 season because they would both be aged 65 when the season started.
It could be that some club umpires are willing to take on other games and become full time League umpires, or they may know more people who we can persuade to become involved in umpiring.
Technology was introduced with the objective of eradicating the obvious umpiring errors and to get as many correct decisions as possible.
According to sources in the board, the ICC has put down the umpiring blunders to human errors and mistakes and nothing more.
While considered a pioneer in the male-dominated world of umpiring, Anderson said she was all business on the field.
I hope to further my achievements with umpiring in tangent with pursuing a career in the financial services.
Umpiring, especially at the Major League level, isn't an easy job, despite what those sitting in the press box or at home with the benefit of instant replay might believe.
I am delighted to be given this opportunity of continuing to be part of this wonderful game and the wonderful profession of umpiring," he added.
While umpiring this weekend, AMLU members will also wear blue wristbands in honor of Prostate Cancer Awareness Day, provided by the Ed Randall Bat for the Cure Foundation.