trade union

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Trade Union

An organization of workers in the same skilled occupation or related skilled occupations who act together to secure for all members favorable wages, hours, and other working conditions.

Trade unions in the United States were first organized in the early nineteenth century. The main purpose of a trade union is to collectively bargain with employers for wages, hours, and working conditions. Until the 1930s trade unions were at a severe disadvantage with management, mainly because few laws recognized the right of workers to organize. With the passage of the National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) of 1935 (29 U.S.C.A. § 151 et seq.), the right of employees to form, join, or aid labor unions was recognized by the federal government.

Trade unions are entitled to conduct a strike against employers. A strike is usually the last resort of a trade union, but when negotiations have reached an impasse, a strike may be the only bargaining tool left for employees.

There are two principal types of trade unions: craft unions and industrial unions. Craft unions are composed of workers performing a specific trade, such as electricians, carpenters, plumbers, or printers. Industrial union workers include all workers in a specific industry, no matter what their trade, such as automobile or steel workers. In the United States, craft and industrial unions were represented by different national labor organizations until 1955. The craft unions that dominated the american federation of labor (AFL) opposed organizing industrial workers.

During the 1930s several AFL unions seeking a national organization of industrial workers formed the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO). The CIO aggressively organized millions of industrial workers who labored in automobile, steel, and rubber plants. In 1938 the AFL expelled the unions that had formed the CIO. The CIO then formed its own organization and changed its name to Congress of Industrial Organizations. In 1955 the AFL and CIO merged into a single organization, the AFL-CIO.

Membership in U.S. trade unions has fallen since the 1950s, as the number of workers in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy has steadily declined. Union membership in 1995 comprised just 14.9 percent of the workforce, compared with a high of 34.7 percent in 1954.


Collective Bargaining; Labor Law.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

trade union

an organization (whether permanent or temporary) that consists wholly or mainly of workers all in an organization whose principal purposes include the regulation of relations between workers and employers. It is not to be treated as a body corporate but it may sue or be sued in its own name. Special rights and privileges accrue to a union that is certified as independent by the Certification Officer, who must also maintain a list of unions. The main legal benefit a union has over other bodies is the immunity that it and its members and officials have against many tort actions. However, aside from the GOLDEN FORMULAE, which must be satisfied, recent restrictions require action that is sought to be immune to be founded upon open and fair balloting of members.
Collins Dictionary of Law © W.J. Stewart, 2006
References in periodicals archive ?
There is another party that also benefits from adjunct unionization: the students taking part in the rich tradition of Catholic higher education.
In promoting unionization back in 2015, Nolan said he wanted to ensure that everyone received a fair salary and that pay and raises were set in a fair, transparent, and unbiased way.
So what effect have these changes in unionization had on wage inequality?
The process of industrial change has also impacted unionization.
My feeling is that if everyone had a sense of what the issues are on a broader level, beyond unionization, maybe people in administration and on boards would start asking questions and rethink what they're doing.
The selection of districts from the COG in Hoxby (1996) and Lovenheim (2009) is very different due to the unionization measure each employs.
Although the industry-level measure of labor strength makes possible the use of a large sample and accounts for the spillover effect of unionization, it has an obvious shortcoming: the extent of unionization at the industry level might be correlated with other industry characteristics.
The dosage test in this context would be to juxtapose the SCM estimate against the unionization rate of the treated unit.
* High unionization rates are characteristic of academic occupations--42.3%, and professional and technical occupations, including teachers--34.1%.
And, as these political scientists have demonstrated, it is life satisfaction and not an increase in income that is the true benefit of unionization.
Michael Lotito, co-chair of Littler's Workplace Policy Institute says that, for many employers, unionization has "declined so precipitously from the high-water mark" of and around the 1950's.