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In doing so, Kgositsile's poetry presents an alternative to circumscribed rights discourses that are imposed within exclusionary racial, national, and cultural 'particulars' by hegemonic institutions such as the nation-state, even as they claim to be universalizing. At the same time, Kgositsile's poetry retains an open-ended discursive notion of the universal as the basis for identity, to be realized only through the particular lived experiences of individuals.
The book is divided into three main chapters, the first of which identifies the Renaissance and the Enlightenment periods as the periods which set the stage for the "Global Arena"; the second which then uses the Reformation and Christendom as a "universalizing" force, up to the signing of the United States constitution in the evolution of natural rights and freedoms; and the third chapter which explains the figures and theories behind political dissent.
I did not intend any universalizing references to "white feminism," and I agree with you that critics should not act as if women of color have a unified agenda separate from white women.
The breadth of concern is a reflection of the categories themselves: "women" and "religion" are abstract categories that resist the universalizing drift that is a necessary aspect of all survey courses.
Along with its concern for social justice (as opposed to personal, individual justice), however, liberal theology brought with it a universalizing tendency expressing the U.S.
For his part, Brown goes on with a metacritical discussion of the nature and limits of historical understanding itself, a discussion that concludes with the judicious acknowledgement that the "abstracting, genera lizing, and universalizing tendencies" of theoretical models need to be resisted" (49) where they tend toward the homogenization of a world more complex than most scholarly theories can admit.
However, the critiques themselves have so far failed to come up with convincing alternative interventionist strategies, either because the universalizing tendency of their theoretical perspective gives rise to interventions that fail to deal with the diverse and fragmented nature of women's experiences and needs, or because recognition of this diversity and fragmentation leaves very little common ground on which to build successful intervention strat egies.
The author diligently reminds us throughout the book that our understandings of modernity should avoid "the twin dangers of universalizing and of creating separate, holistic culture" (p.278), for modernity is "fissured with paradox and incompleteness...because of distinctive social histories within a global imperialism" (p.15).
This is both the glory of speech (it enables us to communicate) and the downfall of speech, if and when we forget this universalizing requirement and ignore its effects.
National manhood's power rests in its abstracting and universalizing potential: whiteness and maleness, for reasons that Nelson and many others have investigated, become the unmarked and representative identity categories that stand in for the whole and, in this instance, the nation.
But perhaps even more important, for the company that can achieve the feat, great opportunity exists for simplifying and universalizing storage management.
To face the challenge of globalization, theological education will have to engage with the interaction of at least four analytically distinct dimensions: (a) the universalizing forces and elements of cultural interpenetration, (b) the universalizing forces and elements of socio-structural interdependence, (c) the particularity of each culture as it interacts with universalizing cultural forces, and (d) the particularity of each socio-structural context as it interacts with the universalizing forces of interdependence.