On the one hand, the preferred usage surely eliminates the prospect of a cognitivism that is reductive in the sense of endorsing an inference from non-moral to aretaic judgment (a "naturalism"):(4) an action's being kind is not simply its being motivated by others' interests, but its being unobjectionably
In that sense, his proposal is not inconsistent with an "income" tax because business expenses are unobjectionably
deducted under an "income" tax in order to avoid the double taxation of the same dollars to the same taxpayer.
So while each of us can recognize that we are but one among many--and that our well-being and that of those close to us is of no greater intrinsic importance than the well-being of others--plausible moral conceptions must recognize that we also unobjectionably
view the world from within a web of our own interests, identifications, and commitments, which are given special weight in our deliberations.
Only in D there really are no others, so that there, quite unobjectionably
by his own lights, he promotes the good of others not at all.