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Related to uterine inertia: Uterine atony, secondary uterine inertia
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dystokia in treatment methods Medicinal + Forced extraction No of Complications animals 1 Uterine torsion 22 5 2 Uterine inertia 20 3 3 Insufficient 13 4 cervical dilation 4 Narrowed pelvic 1 -- cavity 5 Hydropsy 6 2 6 Abdominal 4 1 inability to strain 7 Over fat -- -- 8 Fetal 27 5 maldisposition 9 Fetal emphysema 16 6 10 Fetal oversize 33 3 11 Congenital 14 2 defects 12 Mummified/ 3 2 macerated 13 Twins 6 2 Total 165 35 Sl.
Among the maternal causes, uterine torsion, incomplete cervical dilatation and uterine inertia accounted for 76.86, 20.66 and 2.48 percent respectively (Table 1a).
Table 1: Etiological Incidence of dystocia in small ruminants Causes Percent Incidence Fetal Faulty disposition (n=5) 45.45 (n=11) Monster (n=2) 18.18 Oversized fetus (n=4) 36.37 Incidence of fetal dystocia 36.67 Maternal Incomplete cervical dilatation (n=8) 42.10 (n=19) Uterine torsion (n=2) 10.53 Narrow pelvis (n=7) 36.84 Secondary uterine inertia (n=2) 10.53 Incidence of maternal dystocia 63.33 Table 2: Fetal survivability using different treatment procedures adopted to relieve dystocia in small ruminants Procedure adopted Foetus Foetal Survival delivered Rate (%) Male Female [T.sub.1] Manual traction 9 6 4/15 (26.66%) (n=13) [T.sub.2] Caesarean section 18 4 4/22 (18.18%) (n=17)
Failure of cervical dilation is due to number of causes like cervical induration, primary uterine and cervical inertia, secondary uterine inertia with cervical involution and in early stage of normal parturition.
Incomplete dilatation in multiparous cows may be associated with uterine inertia caused by hypocalcaemia.
Moreover, failure of cervix to dilate properly may be due to uterine inertia, metritis, birth weight of calf, injuries of cervix in previous parturition, and infectious uterine diseases, debility and debilitating diseases (Roberts, 1971) and in older cows due to loss of tonicity of uterus or loss of contracting ability of uterus during parturition.
Incomplete dilatation in multiparous cows may be associated with uterine inertia caused by hypocalcaemia, in animals, that respond to calcium therapy rapidly (Noakes et al., 2002).
Dystocia due to uterine inertia is observed most frequently in dog occasionally in cow and sow, but rare in other species (Benesch, 2001).